Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Geography EOY Rev

Development, Glaciation & Geographical skills

What is development? it involves economic, social and environmental progress
How can we measure development? (4) - GNI (gross national income) - GDP (gross domestic product) - GNP (gross national product) - HDI (human development index)
What is GNI? (2) - measures economic development - total amount of money a country make annually (trading)
What is GDP? (2) - measures economic development - total amount of money made within boundaries of country (salaries, purchases made in country)
What is HDI? (2) - measures life expectancy, education and finance altogether - number from 0-1 awarded to country based off of these factors
Why is HDI better than GNI and GDP? Because it covers more aspects than economic development and is more well-rounded as it is socioeconomic
What are natural factors that limit development? (4) . natural disasters . lack of raw material . dry climates . land locked (no close water source)
What are economic factors that limit development? (3) . low healthcare . low average income . debt
What are the social factors that limit development? (5) . disease . classism . low status of women . illiteracy . poor living standard
What are the political factors that limit development? (3) . colonial history . war . corrupt government
What are the biomes in Africa? (4) - the rainforest - hot desert - semi-desert - savanna
what are the main features in a rainforest? (3) - warm and wet all year - lots of plants species - monkeys, birds, snakes, hippos
what are the main features in a hot desert? (4) - hot in the day, cold in the night - very little rain - strong winds - plants and animals adapted to water
what are the main features of a semi-desert? (4) - cooler than desert but always warm - some rain over few months of the year - grass, low shrubs, scattered trees - most people farm here
what are the main features of a savanna? (4) - warm all year with a wet season and long dry season - all grassland with scattered trees - grow crops, raise animals here - desertification duo to overgrazing
What are the main examples of natural disasters? (4) 1. drought 2. flood 3. tropical storm 4. earthquake
How does drought limit development? (4) - it causes sickness and disease - it happens in places with LUSH rain - crops die out - job loss - desertification
What does LUSH stand for? Low, Unreliable, Seasonal and Heavy rain
How does a flood limit development? (3) - loss of lives - affect infrastructure - loss of jobs
How does a tropical storm limit development? (3) - devastate buildings - expensive to regain - uproot animals and crops
What is desertification? The spread of desert-like conditions in arid environments
How is desertification caused? (2) 1. Human processes - removal of vegetation, overgrazing 2. Physical processes - LUSH rainfall, heavy when it falls, eroding soil or causing surface run-off
What are the 3 types of Aid? 1. Bilateral aid 2. Multilateral aid 3. Voluntary aid
What is Bilateral aid? (3) - when one government helps another one - there are conditions attached and some countries may not be able to fulfill them and end in debt - short term aid
What is Multilateral aid? (3) - money given from World Banks and groups of countries - there are conditions attached - short term aid
What is Voluntary aid? (3) - from charities, non-governmental organizations - unreliable, may not have money when needed - long term aid
What is Short term aid? emergency aid that helps at times of disaster e.g. drought, floods
What is Long term aid? has a lasting effect by providing SUSTAINABLE solutions and encourages people to help themselves in the future
What are examples of conditions that may be attached to aid? (3) . to purchase things from the helper's country . to spend money on important things: education, healthcare . to give back resources in return
How would you describe a climate graph? (5) 1. statements about temperature and rain 2. average temp + rain 3. range 4. total 5. highest/lowest temp + rain in month
What is a glacier? A massive body of slowly moving ice
What are inputs in Glaciers as systems? - they add to the mass of a glacier e.g. snowfall, avalanche, freezing, de-sublimation
What are outputs in Glaciers as systems? - they take away from the mass of the glacier e.g. evaporation, melting, ice-berg formation
What are stores in Glaciers as systems? - the matter and energy present e.g. snow and ice
What is accumulation in Glaciers as systems? (3) - the zone of accumulation is the top half of the glacier - where snowfall > snowmelt - snow can be compacted here into firn
What is ablation in Glaciers as systems? (2) - the zone of ablation is the bottom half of the glacier - where snowmelt> snowfall
What is the equilibrium in Glaciers as systems? (2) - where ablation = accumulation - it is in between the two zones
What is the snout in Glaciers as systems? - the lowest point of the glacier
Why does a glacier change in size seasonally? (summer and winter) SUMMER: the high temps cause more outputs such as melting, and there is more ablation and the glacier retreats up the valley WINTER: the low temps cause more inputs such as snowfall, and there is more accumulation and the glacier advances down
What is weathering? Breakdown of rocks by chemical and physical processes
What is the process of freeze-thaw weathering? (4) 1. water collects in a rock crack 2. falling temps cause water to freeze, expanding and forcing the crack to widen 3. more water collects in different cracks and deepens the crack 4. contractions and expansions are repeated until rock splits (scree)
What is the process of plucking? (2) . Loosened bits of are frozen to the underside of the glacier . As the glacier moves, it plucks bits of rock from the valley floor
What is the process of abrasion? It is plucked rock frozen to the glacier that scrapes at and wears away the valley sides and floors
What is a corrie? - a large, bowl-shaped valley with jagged peaks around - often has a lake (tarn) pooled at the bottom
How is a corrie formed? (3) 1. it is formed when snow in a hollow compacts in ice 2. gravity pulls the ice downwards 3. ice moves in a circular motion which erodes the hollow into a bowl shaped valley
What is an arete? - a jagged ridge with two steep sides
How is an arete formed? (3) 1. two corries form side by side 2. they cut back towards each other 3. freeze-thaw weathering and plucking push the back wall and corries retreat towards eachother
What is a pyramidal peak? - jagged point, with 3+ steep sides
How is a pyramidal peak formed? (3) 1. 3 or more corries form side by side 2. they cut back towards each other 3. freeze thaw weathering and plucking push the back wall
What is a U shaped valley? (2) - a deep valley with sheer straight sides and a flat bottom - it appears as a curve or a 'U'
How is a U shaped valley formed? (3) 1. a glacier flows and erodes the land around it 2. it plucks and abrades the base and sides 3. a U shaped valley is left once the glacier melts
What is a hanging valley? (2) - a dip in the large wall of the U shaped valley - it has a stream flowing through it
How is a hanging valley formed? (3) 1. formed by a small tributary glacier perpendicular to the main glacier 2. when the ice melts, streams begin to flow through it in a V 3. when no more land can flow across, a waterfall is formed
What is a misfit river? (2) - a thin river flowing through a U shaped valley - it is clearly too large for the river
How is a misfit river formed? (2) 1. when a glacier melts and the tributaries return 2. when the river returns, it looks too small for the valley because it has been eroded, expanding the valley
What is a ribbon lake? (2) - it is a long narrow, lake - it fills the floor of a U-shaped valley
How is a ribbon lake formed? (2) 1. moving glaciers gouge out troughs in the valley floor by hard rocks sliding over softer rocks 2. the troughs fill with meltwater from the melted ice
What are erratics? - Rocks and boulders picked up and transported many km by a glacier and deposited in an area of different rock
What is deposition? the dumping of eroded material when the glacier no longer has enough energy to carry it
What is moraine? a mix of debris, rock, sand and clay
What is terminal moraine? (2) - it marks the furthest or maximum point the glacier reached
What is lateral moraine? - rocks are deposited along the side of the glacier
What is medial moraine? - the ridge of rocks are formed when two lateral moraines (ridges on the side) join where two glaciers meet
What is the benefit of tourism in cold environments?
What are some challenges that come with tourism? - employment is seasonal and low paying - housing is expensive for locals as tourist buy 2nd houses here - tourists produce pollution from vehicles
What are the solutions for the challenges? - many young workers can take on multiple jobs which change with the season and tourism - government offers housing for workers just outside Chamonix - work on public transportation (electric vehicle hire)
How do you find the 4 figure grid reference on an O.S. map? line on the left of the location line on the bottom of the location
How do you find the 6 figure grid reference on an O.S. map? split the y and x axis's into tenths the 3rd number is how far along the horizontal axis the location is the 6th number is how far along the vertical axis the location is
What do the contour lines on an OS. map mean? Distance between the lines indicate steepness close = steep, spread = flat
What is primary data? when data is collected first hand by the researcher specifically to answer the question
What is secondary data? collected by someone other than the researcher for a different purpose and published for public use
What is quantitative data? expressed as a number
What is a qualitative data? not expressed as a number
what is systematic sampling? data collected at regular set intervals
what is random sampling? each member of population has an equal chance of selection
What is pragmatic data? based off of practical reasons e.g. to avoid danger
What is stratified data? used where there are groups within a population to ensure there are samples from all groups
Created by: sara-s xxx
Popular Geography sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards