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PSY 212

Chapter 5: Drugs

drug substance entering the body changes the body or its functioning
psychoactive drugs those that have psychological effects, such as anxiety relief or hallucinations
addiction identified by preoccupation with obtaining a drug, compulsive use of drug in spite of adverse consequences, and a high tendency to relapse after quitting
withdrawal negative reaction that occurs when drug use is stopped
tolerance individual becomes less responsive to the drug and requires increasing amounts of the drug to produce the same results
opiates drugs derived from the opium poppy
heroin synthesized from morphine
endorphins endogenous (generated within the body) opioids
depressants drugs that reduce central nervous system activity
ethanol alcohol; a drug fermented from fruits, grains, and other plant products; it acts at many brain sites to produce euphoria (sense of happiness), anxiety reduction, sedation, motor incoordination, and cognitive impairment
stimulants activate the central nervous system to produce arousal, increased alertness, and elevated mood
cocaine extracted from the South American coca plant, produces euphoria, decreases appetite, increases alertness, and relieves fatigue
amphetamines a group of synthetic drugs that produce euphoria and increase confidence and concentration
nicotine primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco
caffeine the active ingredient in coffee and tea, produces arousal, increased alertness, and decreased sleepiness
psychedelic drugs compounds that cause perceptual distortions in the user
marijuana dried and crushed leaves and flowers of the Indian hemp plant (Cannabia sativa)
THC cannabinoid; a group of compounds that includes two known endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG
reward refers to the positive effect an object or a condition–such as a drug, food, sexual contact, or warmth
mesolimbic pathway consists of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and connecting to several targets in the limbic system, especially the nucleus accumbens
sensitization “reverse tolerance” related to synaptic plasticity changes that make neurons more sensitive to chemical changes
agonists direct; drugs that bind to a receptor and facilitate (promote) postsynaptic effects
antagonists direct; drugs that bind to a receptor and inhibit postsynaptic effects
noncompetitive binding indirect; drug binds to a secondary binding site on the receptor and may act as an agonist/antagonist (usually referred to as “partial” agonist or antagonist)
GABA an essential inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that plays a role in slowing down the activity of the neurons
glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter that helps neurons to stimulate neural impulses
Created by: senthis1
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