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helping others

Helping is a complex behaviour that involves thoughts and feelings 3 factors? Internal motivations Situational factors Perceptions of those in need
Prosocial behaviour Acts that are positively viewed by society
Kin selection • Preferential helping of genetic relatives • Results in the greater likelihood that common genes will survive ○ Found in Capuchin monkeys
Reciprocal altruism • Involves helping another despite some immediate risk/cost • Become more likely to receive help in return ○ Found in chimpanzees
Indirect altruism has been found in animals (A helps B, then C helps A, after seeing A helping out
Burnstein et al. (1994) - Used hypothetical situations to see how likely people were to help others in different situations Degree of relatedness (close vs distant),Health (good vs poor),Situation (everyday life vs life and death) More help for close than distant kin Tendency to help those that were sick compared to the healthy, was reversed in life or death situation
Issues/concerns with evolutionary theories of helping behaviour; - Difficult to demonstrate causal relationships - We are more likely to help kin, doesn’t mean we don’t help others that are unrelated - Difficulty explaining helping a complete stranger
Empathy - Understanding or vicariously experiencing another individuals perspective and feeling sympathy and compassion for that individual
Rewards of helping Negative state relief model (Cialdini,1987) - Helping makes us feel good - People feeling bad will help others to feel better - to help reduce negative feelings
Altruism vs egoism Helping others in distress vs making us feel better doing so
Batson (1991) Whether or not people help depends on how they respond emotionally to the victims plight - If you do not feel empathy towards the victim Only help if its in your interest to do so - If you do feel empathy towards the victim Help regardless of interest to do so or not
true altruism happens only if people help when they're no longer troubled by seeing the victim Altruistic acts happen when people can easily not help
Egoism • People help others to reduce feelings of distress, sadness or guilt • When we empathise, we get a sense of oneness with the victim • Cialdini argues that we help for selfish reasons (self-interest)
Stocks, Lishner & Decker (2009) empathetic people help found that - Empathetic p's helped more even when psychological escape was easy - Suggests an altruistic motive to reduce the victims suffering- rather than an egotistic motive
When do people help? - Darley and Batson (1973) Sent p's to a specific building to give a short talk; being a minister or a good Samaritan talk p's believed either early or late saw a man slouched in doorway The more the p's were running late, they were less inclined to help that man
The Bystander effect - People are less likely to help in an emergency when they are with others than when they are alone The greater the number, the less likely it is that anyone will help
Latane & Darley (1970) The Bystander effect study Asked students to fill in paperwork in a room Gradually, the room filled with smoke P's alerted the experimenter - 75% of time if they were alone - 38% of time if they were with strangers - 10% of time if they were with passive confederates
Barriers to overcome the bystander effect 1 - notice the event 2 - interpret the event as an emergency 3 - assume personal responsibility 4 - know how to help 5 - implement the help if these a violated any stage = no help
when do people help? - Mood Good moods ; increase helping -Less preoccupied with the self, more sensitive to others needs Bad moods ; Decrease helping ;Negative state relief model = more helping More focused on their own issues, less concerned about others = less helping
Personal relative deprivation (PRD)- (Crosby,1976;Smith et al, 2012) Dissatisfaction and resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of desired and deserved outcomes compared to some referent (eg. What similar others have) - leads to a less likelihood of helping behaviours
Created by: willkruger
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