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person perception

attribution theory how people explain the cause of behaviour
heider (1958) - aspects of attribution theory Personal attribution (internal, IA) - attribution to internal characteristics of a person (ability, personality, mood, effort) Situational attribution (external) - attribution to factors external to a person (the task, other people, luck)
Kelley,1967 People make personal or situational attributions based on 3 factors Consistency - YES distinctiveness - NO Consensus - NO = INTERNAL For internal attribution, CONSISTENCY has to be the ONLY factor For external attribution any other combination of factors lead external
example of attribution theory A mother beating her child what does it say about the mother? A student falling asleep during a lecture
consistency e.g. Does the person usually behave this way in this situation? (Does this mother beat the child more often?)(Does this studeny fall asleep during these lectures) if YES =INTERNAL
distinctiveness e.g. Distinctiveness Does the person behave differently in different situations (Is this the only child she beats?)(is this student awake during other lectures) NO = INTERNAL
consensus e.g. Do others behave similarly in this situation? (Do other people beat this child?)(do other students fall asleep during these lectures) NO = INTERNAL
attribution biases - cognitive heuristics - availability heuristic - false-consensus effect - base rate fallacy
cognitive heuristics information-processing rules of thumb that makes us think quick and easy (but not always flawless)
availability heuristics tendency to estimate the odds that an event will occur by how easily it pops to mind
false-consensus effect overestimation of extent to which others share their opinions, attributes and behaviours
base rate fallacy social perception are more influenced by one vivid life story than statistical facts
fundamental attribution error (FAE) (Ross, 1977) The tendency to underestimate the impact of situational factors on other peoples behaviour
FAE examples Parents are surprised that their child, usually naughty at home, is friendly at school TV watchers are surprised that actors who play certain characters who represent a set of characteristics are not at all similar in real life
FAE Ross et al., 1967 study P's were either a quiz master or a contestants How knowledgeable are quiz masters(1) and contestants (2) according to 1) , 2), 3) audience Quiz master was seen to be more knowledgeable to 2)&3) but quiz masters and contestant were equal to each other
FAE Miller,1984 Indian and american p's were asked to describe the causes of behaviours they had observed in their lives - p's aged 8,11,15 or adults Individualistic cultures (eg. Uk,usa) are inclined to make personal attributions Compared to collectivists cultures
FAE (San Martin et al,2019) Cultures vary in relational mobility (freedom,chance a society offers to form new ties and break old one) Low - Nigeria,Morrocco; high - Israel,Spain Low RM shows weak sense of IA- those high RM mean thatgrowth is mainly governed by the self
why does FAE occur? 1. People have an impulsive tendency to accept what they encounter as true 2. Culture teaches us to commit to FAE 3. Dispositions in behaviour are caused by a perceptual bias
2 biases Fundamental attribution error - is a bias in explaining somebody else's behaviour Self-serving bias - is a bias in explaining our own behaviour - Tendency to attribute success to ourselves and failures to others or to the situation
Results of self-serving bias Most businessman see themselves as more ethical than the average businessman 86% of people rate their job performance as above average Most people perceive themselves as more intelligent than their average peer
speicla form of self serving bias + examples Blaming people for their own misfortunes ('blaming the victim') Examples; ○ Unemployed people are lazy ○ Rape victims are careless ○ Aids victim lack moral standards - Cancer patients live an unhealthy life
reasons for blaming the victim Self protection (eg. 'if victims cant influence own misfortunes, I can be the next victim') Fundamental attribution error (underestimation of external factors)
locus of control Is the extent to which a person is more inclined to be more internally or externally attributed
Self efficacy (Bandura,1986) refers to an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments
internal and external oriented and self efficacy Someone who is more internally oriented tends to have greater self-efficacy Being externally oriented people just shows a persons personality rather than anything positive or negative
internal and external locus of control internal - Individual believes that his/her behaviour is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts. external - a belief that life is controlled by outside factors which the person cannot influence, or that chance or fate controls their lives
Locus of control and well being (Frey et al, 1986) Victims of road accidents were interviewed in hospital and it was determined whether they were internally or externally oriented 9 days - internally oriented 34 days - externally oriented Internally oriented people believe and choose their journey
Created by: willkruger
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