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PSY105 Modules 20-22

PSY105 Modules 20-22: Learning

what is associate learning process of connecting simultaneous or sequential events (conditioning)
What is cognitive learning? required the acquisition of mental information to guide our own behavior.
observational learning Watch and learn (social learning)
Explain the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning: Involves linking 2 or more stimuli. (Dog salivating when they hear a bell ring) Operant conditioning: involves and organism associating a behavior or action w/ a consequence. (rewarding a rat for pressing a button: Skinner box)
Example of unconditioned stimulus Food
Example of unconditioned response Salvation
Example of conditioned stimulus Bell
Example of conditioned response Salvation
Explain law of effect rewarded behavior increases and punished behavior decreases.
What is positive reinforcement? rewarding a desired behavior w/ pleasurable stimulus
what is negative reinforcement? encourages a response by removing something negative, desired behavior is utilized to avoid something aversive.
What is primary reinforcers? rewarding/ don't need to be learned or associated.
Conditioned reinforcers? Must be learned/associated
Reinforcement schedules have a significant influence on how effective and long-lasting reinforcement is.
Continuous reinforcement schedules result in rapid learning, but behavior extinction (the desired behavior diminishes and eventually stops) also occurs rapidly.
Fixed-ratio schedules reward the desired behavior after a set number of responses.
Variable-ration schedules reward the desired behavior after a different number of response every time, making the reward unpredictable. This results in a high response rate because the more responses that occur, the more rewards are given.
Intermittent reinforcement schedules reward the desired behavior irregularly. Learning occurs more slowly but is much more stable in the long-term.
Fixed-interval schedules reward the desired behavior after a set duration of time. The desired behavior tends to increase around the time the reward is due.
Variable-interval schedules reward the desired behavior on a changing time schedule
Explain instinctive drift Tendency for old behaviors to revert back to behaviors that are more instinctual
Created by: eneill
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