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RTE 2712 Nervous Sys

RTE 2712 Wk One Nervous system

Three functions of the nervous system 1)Monitors the internal and external environments 2) integrates sensory info 3) cordinates voluntary and involuntary responses of many other organ systems
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of Brain and spinal cord
Nerves carry impulses from the PNS to the CNS Afferent
Nerves carry impulses from the CNS to the PNS Efferent
The basic units of the nervous system Neurons
Regulate the environment around neurons, provide a supporting framework for neural tissues, and act as phagocytes Neuroglia
General structure of Neurons Cell body, dendrites, axon, synaptic terminals
Branching, sensitive ______, which receive incoming signals dendrites
Give a gray color to areas containing neuron cell bodies and account for the color of gray matter seen in brain and spinal cord dessections Nissl bodies
Found at the tips of each branch Synaptic terminals
A synaptic terminals are part of a ____ site where neuron communicates with another cell. Synapse
Has two or more dendrites and a single axon and are the most common neurons in the CNS Multipolar neuron
Have two processes-one dendrite and one axon-with the cell body between them. Rare but occur in special organs Bipolar neurons
Thin, expanded tips wrap around axons creating a membranous sheath of insulation Myelin
These areas constitute the white matter of the CNS Oligodendrocytes
Small phagocytic cells that are quite obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS are the Microglia
The outer surface of the Schwann cell is called neurilemma
The membrane potential of an undisturbed cell is known as its resting potential
The resting potential of a neuron is -70 mV
Every stimulus that brings the membrane to threshold will generate an identical action potential all or none principle
A propagated change in the membrane potential of the entire plasma membrane Action potential
The three meningeal layers are the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater
Two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The peripheral system consists of two divisions Afferent (sensory input) and efferent (motor output)
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by Somatic nervous system
The types of neuroglia (glial cells) in the central nervous system unipolar, bipolar and multipolar
The white matter of the CNS represents a region dominated by the presence of oligodendrocytes
The control of functions in the nervous system-communication and information processing are performed by the neurons
Neurons are classified on the basis of their structure as unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar
Small phagocytic cells that are quite obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS Microglia
The motor neurons of the efferent division of the PNS carry instructions from the CNS to muscles, glands and adipose tissue
A synaptic terminal is a part of the synapse, a site where intercellular communications between neurons occurs
Interneurons or association neurons are found only within the brain and the spinal cord
Two types of neuroglia found in the PNS Schwann cells and satellite cells
For information transfer, processing and storage Neurons
Two classes of Neural cells Neurons and Neuroglia
Three structural classes of neurons Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, and Interneurons (association neurons)
Located between sensory and motor neurons, and analyze inputs, coordinate outputs Interneurons
Gather info and send to axon Dendrites
Aggregation of ribosomes in neurons Nissl bodies
Branches along the length of the axon Collaterals
Dendrite, axon continuous, and afferent neurons Unipolar
Many dendrites, one axon away from the soma, most common class of neuron Multipolar
One dendrite, one axon, very rare Bipolar
Types of Neuroglia (glia) Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Ependymall cells
Largest, most numerous, part of blood brain barrier Astrocytes
Are responsible for the myelination of CNS axons (surround axons) Oligodendrocytes
Phagocytic cells derived from white blood cells, and obvious in damaged cells Microglia
Lining of brain, spinal cord cavities, ventricals and source of cerebrospinal fluid Ependymal cells
Portions of the brain surface are covered by a thick layer of gray matter called Neural cortex
Bundles of axons or tracts that share origins, destinations and functions White matter
Tracts in the spinal cord form larger groups called columns
Nerve cell bodies in the PNS are clustered into ganglia
Bundles of axons supported by connective tissue Nerve
Nerves to and from the spinal cord (31) Spinal nerves
Nerves to and from the brain (12) Cranial nerves (12)
Carry info from sensory receptors to processing centers in the brain Ascending pathways
Carry commands form specialized CNS centers to skeletal muscles Descending pathways
Excess negative charge inside the neuron, created and maintained by Na - K ion pump, negative voltage (potenial) inside Resting potential
If Na+ channels open, positive charges enter cell, membrane potential moves positive Depolarization
If K+ channels open, positive charges leave cell, membrane potential moves negative Hyperpolarization
The information transfer occurs throught the release of these chemicals from the synaptic terminal neurotransmitters
Cholinergic synapses release neurotransmitter acetycholine
In a cholinergic synapses what enzyme in the synaptic cleft breaks down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
Common neurotransmitter that is important in the brain and in portions of the ANS norepinephrine
Release the neurotransmitter dopamine Dopaminergic synapses
Groups of interconnected neurons with specific functions Neuronal pool
Information spreads from one neuron to several neurons, or form one neuronal pool to multiple pools Divergence
Several neurons synapse on a single postsynaptic neuron. Convergence
Layer that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord (CNS) Meninges
Meninge that has a tough, fibrous outer layer and forms the outermost covering of the CNS Dura mater (tough mother)
Between the dura mater of the spinal cord and the walls of the vertebral canal lies Epidural space
Secong meninge layer has a layer of squamous cells and contains a small quantity of lymphatic fluid Arachnoid (spidery)
Innermost meninge layer, the blood vessels servicing the brain and spinal cord run along the surface of this layer Pia mater (delicate mother)
Relays info to and from the brain, processes some info on its own, and is divided into 31 segments Spinal cord
Two enlargements in the spinal cord used to supply the upper and lower limbs Cervical and Lumbar enlargements
Each segment of the spinal cord has a pair of Dorsal root ganglia, dorsal roots, and ventral roots
Inflammation of the meningeal membranes following bacterial or viral infection Meningitis
Dominated by the cells bodies of neurons and glial cells. Gray matter
Projections of gray matter, extend outward into the white matter. Horns
White matter organized into three regions or Columns
The six major regions of the brain 1) Cerebrum 2) Diencephalon 3) Midbrain 4) Pons 5) Medulla oblongata 6) Cerebellum
The four hollow chambers in the center of the brain are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Where is CSF produced Choroid plexus
Functions of the cerebrum Conscious though, intellectual activity, memory, and origin of complex patterns of movement
Directs voluntary movement Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
Receives somatic sensation (touch, pain, pressure, temp.) Primary sensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)
Categorical hemisphere is usually the left and contains the general interpretative along with _____ The speech centers (broca area)
A printed record of brain waves Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Disorder affecting the ability to speak or read Aphasia (a-, without + phasia, speech)
Disorder affecting the comprehension and use of words. Dyslexia
Establish emotions and related drives, link cerebral cortex intellectual functions to brain stem autonomic functions, and controls reflexes associated with eating Limbic system
Process visual, auditory information, and generate involuntary movements Midbrain
Links to cerebellum, and involved in control of movement Pons
Relays sensory info, and regulate autonomic function. (Without we die!) Medulla oblongata
Oversees postural muscles, stores patterns of movement, fine tunes most movements, and links to brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord Cerebellum
Links brain and spinal cord, relays ascending info to cerebral cortex, and controls crucial organ systems by reflex Medulla oblongata
Links the CNS with the body, carries all sensory info and motor commands, axons bundled in nerves, and cell bodies grouped into ganglia Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
12 pairs and connect to the brain not the cord Cranial nerves
The only cranial nerves attached to the cerebrum and are responsible for the sense of smell Olfactory (CN I)
Carry visual info from the eyes Optic (CN II
Largest of the cranial nerves, these nerves provide sensory info from the head and face and motor control over chewing and eye movement. Trigeminal (CN V)
Provide sensory info from the ear canals, the diaphragm and taste receptors in the pharynx Vagus (CN X)
31 Pairs are grouped according to the region of the vertebral column from which they originate Spinal nerves
Each pair of nerves monitors a specific region of the body known as a dermatome
What are the 31 pairs of spinal nerves 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral
Four large plexuses Cervical plexus, Brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
An automatic involuntary motor response to specific stimulus Reflex
The five steps in a reflex arc 1)Arrival of stimulus and activation of receptor 2) Activation of sensory neuron 3) CNS processing of info 4) Activation of motor neuron 5) Response by effector
Has longer delay than monosynaptic reflex, con produce more complex response, example (flexor reflex is withdrawal reflex) Polysynaptic reflex
Wiring of a single reflex Receptor, Sensory neuron, Interneuron, motor neuron, effector
Waves characteristic of normal resting adults Alpha waves
Waves typically accompany intense concentration Beta waves
Withdrawal reflex affecting the muscles of a limb Flexor reflex
Sensory cortex contains a miniature map of the body surface is called sensory homunculus (little man)
Divisions of the autonomic nervous system Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Fight or flight Sympathetic
Rest and digest Parasympathetic
Supporting cells neuroglia
Cover CNS axons with myelin oligodendrocytes
Carry sensory info to the brain ascending tracts
occurs along unmyelinated axons continuous propagation
outermost covering of brain and spinal cord Dura mater
production of CSF choroid plexus
Controls smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, and fat cells Autonomic nervous system
occurs along myelinated axons saltatory propagation
link between nervous and endocrine system hypothalamus
carry motor commands to spinal cord descending tracts
efferent division of the PNS motor neurons
controls contractions of skeletal muscles somatic nervous system
masses of neuron cell bodies ganglia
connects the brain to the spinal cord medulla oblongata
stretch reflex monosynaptic reflex
afferent division of the PNS sensory neurons
maintains muscle tone and posture cerebellum
rest and response parasympathetic division
opposing reflex dual innervation
Created by: Joker71