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PS Chapters 11-12

Elements and Chemical Bonds/Reactions/Equations

Chemical bond Is a force that holds two or more atoms together
Valance electron Is it an outer most electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding
Electron dot diagram A model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element’s chemical symbol.
Covalent bond Is a chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Molecule Is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonding that acts as an independent unit
Polar molecule A molecule that has a partial positive end, and a partial negative end, because of unequal sharing of electrons
Chemical formula Is a group of chemical symbols and numbers that represent the elements and the number of atoms of each element that make up a compound
Ion Is an atom that is no longer electricity neutral because it has lost or gained valence electrons
Ionic bond The attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic compound
Metallic bond Is a bond form with many metal atoms share their pooled valence electrons
Chemical reaction a process in which atoms of one or more substances rearranged to form one or more new substances
Chemical equation Is a description of reaction using element symbols in the chemical formulas
Reactants Starting substances in a chemical reaction
Products The substances produced by the chemical reaction
Law of conservation of mass States that the total mass of the reactants before a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of the products after the chemical reaction
Coefficient Is a number placed in front of an element symbol or chemical formula in a equation
Synthesis reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one compound
Decomposition reaction One compound breaks down and forms two or more substances
Single replacement reaction One element replaces another element in a compound
Double replacement reaction The negative ions in two compounds switch places forming two new compounds
Combustion A chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen and releases energy
Activation energy Is the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Catalyst Is a substance that increases reaction rate by lowering the activation energy of a reaction
Enzyme Is a catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in living cells
Inhibitor Is a substance that slows or even stops a chemical reaction
Endothermic reactions Chemical reactions that absorb thermal energy
Exothermic reactions Chemical reaction that releases thermal energy
Created by: Jergertigers
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