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Psychology Quiz #7

Accomodation, Depth Perception, Learning

What is Emmetropia? You can see close and far away without assistance.
What is Myopia? When you can see objects clearly when they are close, but not when they are far away (nearsighted). Lens is thick and round. Varies in severity
What is Hyperopia? When you can see objects clearly when they are far away but not close up (farsighted). Recessive, eyeball is too short. Some kids mature out of it. Lens is thin and flat.
What are some other issues with seeing clearly? Astigmatism: cornea is pointy, light is bent in different angles and things become blurry.
Color Perception: How do we see color? Objects themselves are not colored. Wavelengths of objects bounce off and into our eyes.
How does top-down processing influence perception? Goal of finding a red object. Cheese itz, knowing what the box looks like, even in dim light.
What are the two theories? Trichromatic Theory and Process Theory
What is the Trichromatic Theory? When 3 different cones in the eye are responsible for transducing different wavelengths of light. 1. s-cone: short wavelengths, blue light 2. m-cone: medium wavelengths, green light 3. l-cone: long wavelengths, red light
How do we all see white? All cones are being equally activated.
How do we see orange? Sensory neurons have different activations.
How do we see black? All cones are being inactive/surpressed, Absensce of wavelength.
What happens when someone is colorblind? They have issues with their cones. Can be born with damage or damage the cones with intensely bright lights. Can happen when outside, welding, tanning
What is the Process Theory? The Opponent Process theory (Brain), is when color neurons pair up. 1 is active and 1 is supressed. COLOR PAIRS: Black and White.
What are after images? Color you experience after you have been exposed to another color you were exposed to. Neurons that were not active during the before after you see them active. Example: after getting your picture taken, you see the dots.
Contrast of colors and the opponent process theory. When you combine 2 colors from color pairs changes the perception on color. Example: putting clothes together to match and they no longer look like what they did, alters brain perception.
Color blindness doesn't mean all colors are invisible. red/green colorblindness is more likely. blue/yellow colorblindness is less likely.
Seeing in 3D: What is depth perception? Your ability to recognize something is 3D. Distance between ourself and objects in the environment. Example: Walking up the stairs and knowing how high the step is in space to walk.
What are monocular (pictorial) cues? Work with one or both eyes open, but only need one open to read cues. 1. Motion Parallax: rate of speed/motion when things seem to be moving faster we percieve them as closer and vice versa. Example: When moving in a car.
What is the second monocular cue? Linear Perspective: placement of parallel lines. Convergence when they come together, the further away they are. Do not have to be straight lines. Example: standing on railroad tracks and looking into the distance.
What is the third monocular cue? Interposition/Occlusion: placement of objects, such that things are overlapping. Objects that are covering are closer and the objects being covered are farther away. Example: your desk is further away than the notebook sitting on top of it.
What is the fourth monocular cue? Shadow/Shading: position of light can also be placing your hand in and out of an object. Example: looking at bowls, concave and convex bowl shape. Photoshopping.
What is a binocular cue? Input to both eyes, and the eyes have to be doing the same things.
What is Retinal Disparity? Talking about differences. Between the two retinal images. Light falling on retina in right eye is different than light falling on retina in left eye.
The fovea tends to focus on the same object, to make it appear clearer. When the brain receives this input from the retinas and fovea, it makes calculations depending on the similarities of those two images.
More Disparity=? Less Disparity=? More disparity makes objects appear closer (less overlap). Less disparity makes objects appear farther (more overlap). Example: closing one eye and placing your thumb and then closing the other eye. Your thumb moves.
How does disparity affect our 3D view? Brain uses disparity to make judgements about distance. Allows us to see the world in 3D. Allowing us to make the best judgements about distance. Providing different wavelengths of light.
What is learning? Learning is any prolonged or stable change due to experience. Due to behaviors and MP's Has to last for a decent amount of time.. Affects how we perveive, remember, think and behave, and future thinking/behaving.
What is an example of learning? Top-Down Perception: mental processes happening during experience which alters the way we interpret sensory information. Affects the way we interpret past experiences as well.
What are the two types of psychologists? Behavioral Psychologists and Cognitive Psychologists.
What does a behavioral psychologist do? When studying learning, they are interested in how we create associations. Primarily focused on external events or behaviors.
What does a cognitive psychologist do? When studying learning they are interested in our mental processes. Thinking, knowing, problem solving. How do thoughts, feelings, social experiences change us? Memory and past information. Want to understand why people behave the way they do.
What is behavioral learning? Ways to make associations, making connections among information.
What is classical conditioning? Learning to make predictions. One stimulus or event signals a separate stimulus or event. 2 stimulus, 1 response or result.
What is the procedure of classical conditioning? Pairing a neutral stimulus (no response), with a reflex, (stimulus and response). Repeatedly exposures to this pairing leads to learning. Example: Cat Being Sprayed Experiment. cat, blinking, sprayed with water.
What is the result of classical conditioning? Neutral stimulus takes on meaning, resulting in response, predicts the reflective stimulus.
What is Instrumental Conditioning? Learning to associate behavior with consequences. 1 stimulus, 1 response. Desired consequences strengthen our response, undesired consequences weaken our response.
What is the procedure of instrumental conditioning? Behavior results in the addition or removal of a stimulus (consequence).
Increase behavior=addition/removal is DESIRED Example (addition): increase a child's behavior of eating their veggies, by offering a cookie or ice cream when they are finished. Example (removal): increase wearing seat belts by removing the annoying car BEEP.
Decrease behavior=addition/removal is UNDESIRED Example (addition): kids kicks, parent yells Example (removal): hurt feelings, you remove your attention/presence
Created by: ldunlap4
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