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Psych Chapter 12

Social Psychology Sub field in psychology that deals with how our behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by our social interactions with others
Social Perceptions Processes by which we form impressions, make judgements, and develop attitudes about people and events that constitute our social world
Impression Formation Process of developing an opinion or impression of another person
Social Scheme Mental image or representation we use to understand our social environment
Stereotypes Tendency to characterize all members of a particular group as having certain characteristics in common
Self-fulfilling Prophecy An expectation that helps us bring about the outcome that's expected
Attribution An assumption about the causes of behaviors or events
Dispositional Causes Causes relating to the internal characteristics or traits of individuals
Situational Causes Causes relating to external or environmental events
Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to attribute behavior to internal causes without regard to situational influences
Actor-observer effect Tendency to attribute the causes of one's own behavior to situational factors while attributing the causes of other people's behavior to internal factors or dispositions
Self-serving bias Tendency to take credit for our accomplishments and explain away our failures and disappointments
Attitude An evaluation or judgement of either liking or disliking a person, object, or social issue
Cognitive Dissonance theory Belief that people are motivated to resolve discrepancies between their behavior and their attitudes, beliefs, or perceptions
Elaboration likelihood model A theoretical model that posits two channels by which persuasive appeals lead to attitude change; a central route and peripheral route
Attraction Describes feelings of liking others as well as having positive thoughts about them and inclinations to act positively towards them
Reciprocity Principle that people tend to like others who like them back
Matching hypothesis Belief that people tend to pair off with others who are similar to themselves in physical characteristics
Bystander Intervention Helping a stranger in distress, influenced by; situational ambiguity, perceived "cost", diffusion of responsibility, similarity, empathy, facial features, mood, gender
In-groups Social, religious, ethnic, racial, or national groups with which one identifies
Out-groups Groups other than those with which one identifies
Out-group Negativism Cognitive bias involving the predisposition to attribute more negative characteristics to members of out groups than to those of in-groups
In-group Favoritism Cognitive bias involving the predisposition to attribute more positive characteristics to members of in-groups than to those of out-groups
Out-group Homogenity Cognitive bias describing the tendency to perceive members of out-groups as more alike than members of in-groups
Authoritarian Personality A personality type characterized by rigidity, prejudice, and excessive concerns with obedience/respect for authority
Stereotype threat A sense of threat evoked in people from stereotyped groups when they believe that they may be judged/treated stereotypically
Contact hypothesis Allport's belief that under certain conditions, increased inter group contact helps reduce prejudice and intergroup tension
Personal Identity Part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals, ex. I am caring, I like movies
Social Identity Part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as members of particular groups; also called group identity ex. I am catholic, band member
Conformity Tendency to adjust one's behavior to actual or perceived social pressures
Compliance Process of acceding to requests or demands of others
Lowball technique A compliance technique based on obtaining a person's initial agreement to purchase an item at a lower price before revealing hidden costs that raise the ultimate price
Bait and switch technique A compliance technique based on baiting a person by making an unrealistically attractive offer and then replacing it with a less attractive offer
Foot in the door technique A compliance technique based on securing compliance with a smaller request as a prelude to making a larger request
Door in the face technique A compliance technique in which refusal of a large, unreasonable request is followed by a smaller, more reasonable request
Obedience Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually people in a position of authority
Legitimization of authority Tendency to grant legitimacy to the orders or commands of people in authority
Social validation Tendency to use other people's behavior as a standard for judging the appropriateness of one's own behavior
Social facilitation Tendency to work better or harder in the presence of others than when alone
Social loafing Tendency to expend less effort when working as a member of a group than when working alone
Group think Janis's term for the tendency of members of a decision-making group to be more focused on reaching a consensus than on critically examining issues at hand
Created by: Sydboyer15
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