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Cognitive Psychology

Week 2

What is memory? Process involved in retaining, retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present.
What is sensory memory? The brief persistence (of an image) which is one of the things that makes it possible to perceive movies.
Long-term memory? responsible for storing information for long periods of time.
What falls under long-term memory? Episodic memories, procedural memory & semantic memories
What is short-term memory? storing information for a brief period of time
What is working memory? a limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning. Working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition.
Why does a memory trace vanish in the working memory? Because of the decay that occurred during the passage of time after a stimuli.
What is a digit span? The number of digits a person can remember.
What is chunking? A method which allows a person to learn more content than their capacity limit. It is a form of a control process.
Why are some people able to store more items in their working memory? because they use very effective control processes, often in combination with LTM contents.
How did the experiment with digits on an athletic student (S.F.) illustrate interaction between STM and LTM & effectiveness of controll processes? Demonstrated this with a student S.F., who had a typical memory span of 7 digits, but after extensive training (230 hours) he was able to repeat sequences of up to 79 digits without error.
What does the capacity of the working memory depend on, besides effective control processes? Complexity & compressibility of the to-be-remembered materials
What is change detection? a procedure which uses visual items that cannot be verbalized. Because it's impossible to rehearse, it might be better suited to assess working memory independent from any control processes or LTM involvement.
What did the color square experiment show in relation to working memory? That people have a working capacity maximum of 4.
What does the high correlation between change detection performance and problem solving ability suggest? Visual short-term memory somehow plays a central role in higher cognitive functioning.
What did the experiment of Alvarez & Cavanagh with complex figures in relation to working memory show? The greater the amount of information in an image, the fewer items that can be held in visual short-term memory.
What is the effect of stress on working memory? Performance decreases for both difficult problems or dual-task problems.
How can you reduce worrying to improve performance? Mindfulness, because it helps in attention control and working memory. Or just writing for 10mins about your worries before your test.
How is working memory related to academic performance? Scores on working memory tasks are correlated with 1. Overall intelligence & grades 2. reading ability Scores on central executive tasks are correlated with verbal fluency, reading comprehension, reasoning ability & note-taking skills.
How does working memory work for people with depression? They have difficulty with some working-memory tasks, but not others. Generally, people with depression often have trouble concentrating and have a ruminative style.
How does working memory work for people with ADHD? People with ADHD perform lower on both visual and verbal working memory tasks than individuals without an ADHD diagnosis. People with ADHD have more difficulty than others on central-executive tasks, especially when they must inhibit a response.
What are models related to working/short-term memory? Modal model of memory Baddeley's working memory model Embedded process model
What are the types of memory of the modal model of memory? 1. Sensory memory 2. Short-term memory 3. Long-term memory
What is a control process? A dynamic process associated with the structural features that can be regulated by the person and may differ from one task to another.
What were the 3 methods used in the experiments with the sensory memory store by Sperling? Whole report method Partial report method Delayed partial report method
What was the conclusion of the experiments with the sensory memory store by Sperling? Sensory memory registers all or most of the information that hits our visual receptors, but this information decays within less than a second.
Iconic memory? The brief sensory memory for visual stimuli.
Echoic memory? The brief sensory memory for auditory stimuli.
Which 3 components are there in Baddeley's working memory model? Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad & central executive
What two components does the phonological loop consist of? Phonological store (which holds info for a few seconds) and articulatory rehearsal process (responsible for rehearsal that keeps items in store from decaying)
What does the phonological loop hold? Verbal & auditory information
What does the visuospatial sketchpad hold? Visual & spatial information.
What is the central executive? Where the major work from working memory occurs; pulls information from LTM and coordinates activity of phonological loop & visuospatial sketchpad by focusing on specific parts of a task.
What is the phonological similarity effect? Confusion of words or letters that sound limiar.
What ist eh word length effect? Memory for lists of words is better for short words than long words.
What is articulatory suppression? Repetition of an irrelevant sound which reduces memory because speaking interferes with rehearsal (e.g. saying ''the'')
What is visual imagery? Creation of images in the mind
What is mental rotation and what is it an example of? Rotating images of objects in the mind.
Episodic bugger Can store, link and integrate different kinds of information from all subcomponents of working memory and from LTM
Proactive interference Information learned previously interferes with new information
Retroactive interference Learning new information interferes with remembering old
Serial-position effect u-shaped relationship between word's position in a list and probability of recall
Recency effect Better recall end of list
Primarcy effect Better recall beginning of list
Semantics meaning of words and sentences
Bias Tendency to behave in certain way
Reconstructive retrieval bias every time you retrieve memory, this retrieval is influenced by schemas & representation which can alter memory and bias it
Schema a persons knowledge about some aspect of environment/situation. Can help to behave in certain way, distort memory, recall by expectations
Reconstructive retrieval Schema-guided construction of episodic memories that interpret, embellish, intergrate and alter encoded memory representations
Source monitoring error Process of determining origins of our memories
Misinformation effect Memory error happens because receive information about something after the event
Source monitoring error The more similarity of the misinformation with the original information, the greater the interference
Flashbulb memories We feel like we remember something very clearly and detailed. Our accuracy goes down in similar way but our confidence is high
Why flashbulb memories? 2 hypothesis. Narrative rehearsal hypothesis: you hear a lot about it in the media --> a lot of rehearsal --> easier to remember. Source misattribution: we hear about it a lot --> do we know that what we remember is modeled by our experiences or others?
Emotion Reaction to specific stimulus
Mood General, long lastig experiences
Pollyanna principle pleasant items are remembered more efficiently & more accurate
Why does pollyanna principle happen? Perception: people perceive events in their lives more often to be pleasant than unpleasant Fading affect bias: the affect associated with unpleasant effents fades faster than the affect associated with pleasant events.
What did eyewitness test show? Eyewitnesses are very inaccurate.
Explanations for eyewitness testimony? Reconstructive Retrieval Weapons focus effect Source misattribution error Misinformation effect Post-identification feedback effect
Positive effects of memory biases Enrich understanding Flexible memory system Supplement perception & recollection Update memories Combining memories promotes creativity & problem solving
Negative effects of memory biases Undermine memory accuracy Misinterpretation of past events
Created by: DoorBella
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