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Psych of Learning

the third test information for my Psychology of Learning course

what is extinction? how is it effective? withdrawl of a SR (reinforcer) contingency. effective reinforcement extinguishes behavior
what is extinction burst? a temporary increase in response behavior
what are the side effects of extinction? increased behavior variability - especially resurgence behaviors. frustration and aggression. depression - behavioral theories of clinical depression.
what is spontaneous recovery? reappearance of the response following a rest period after extinction.
what determines resistants to extinction? schedule of the reinforcer, length of the reinforcer history, magnitude of the reinforcer, deprivation/satiation, prior experience with extinction, presence of the availability of reinforcement
how can extinction be used in applied settings? be consistant, don't allow occasional reinforcers. use a functional assessment to consider possible sources of reinforcement. provide reinforcement behavior.
what are the 4 sources of reinforcement in a functional assessment? Sensory (ex. music), Escape (ex. get out of aversive stimuli), Attention, and Tangible (ex. receive award).
what is differential reinforcement (DRA)? organisms are constantly behaving, provide a lavish reinforcer for one or more alternative behaviors
what is DRI? what is DRC? differential reinforcement of imcompatible behaviors. differential reinforcement communication.
what is DRO? differential reinforcement of other behaviors where the person gets reinforced unless the unwanted behavior is done
what is DRL and how does it effect DRO? differential reinforcement of low rates. the person gets the reinforcer so long as the rate stays low
what is stimulus control? a situation in which the presence of a discriminative stimulus reliably affects the probability of a behavior
what is stimulus generalization? an operant reponse is emitted to stimuli similiar to a signal of availibility of reinforcement, leads to generalization gradient (lower intensity/rate)
what is the peark shift effect? the peak of the generalization gradient shifts away from the nonavailibility of the reinforcer. Kohler explains this by the gestalt hypothesis and Spence explains this by inhibitory hypothesis
how does the availibility of a reinforcement as a schedule signal work? multiple schedules - 2+ sequential schedules of reinforcers each having its own signal of availibility of reinforcement
how can stimulus control be applied? Edwin Guthrie - contiguity is everything, stimuli preceding responses come to control repsonses, over time we fall into behavior ruts.
what two applications apply to stimulus control? 1. insomnia - what stimuli signal sleep? laying in bed, reading, prayers, cocoa2. studying - what signals studying? textbooks, certain time, tutor
how can stimulus control be enhanced? comprehensive antecedent procedure - add discriminative stimuli, adjust response effort, use establishing operations
what is fading? the process of gradually altering the intensity of a stimulus
what is escape conditioning? withdrawling an aversive stimulus contingent upon behavior, presence of aversive stimulus is SD and absence is SR-
what determines efficacy in escape conditioning? intensity of aversive event, prior reinforcement history, delay of SR-
what is avoidance conditioning? a cue becomes the new SD (cue signals aversive stimulus)
what is the difference between escape and avoidance conditioning? escape - heartburn-->tums-->no heartburnavoidance - no heartburn-->Zantac-->no heartburn
what is the avoidance paradox? how can "nothing" reinforce behavior and produce learning?
what is Mowrer's Two Process-Theory? process 1 - classical conditioning, light: stock-->, light-->fearprocess 2 - operant conditioning, light: run--> fear reduction
how can the two process-theory be applied? phobias - circus:clowns-->fear, circus-->fear, circus:run-->fear leavesOCD - exposure & response prevention
what problems are there with the two process theory? the persistance of avoidance, avoidance without fear, free-operant avoidance conditioning
what is the one process theory? operant conditioning is enough, organisms monitor probability (rate) of aversive stimuli
choice behavior, who improved on Skinner? Hernstein, used only pigeons. he stimulated options in the lab with concurrent schedules
what is the matching law? response allocations match reinforcement availibility RA/RA+RB = SRA/SRA+SRB
what deviations are there from the matching law? undermatching - when little or no change over delay. overmatching - when large change over delay. bias - as a measure of preferences. humans usually overmatch
what explanations are there of matching? maximization theory - does matching necessarily max reinforcers?melioration theory - behavior always increases toward the better althernative
why is melioration bad? redundant (useless) responging - choice between VR100 & VI30sec. long term habituation - case of the daily steak. sensitivity to short term consequences
what applications are there of matching? differential reinforcement efficacy, explaining athletic choices, why you just haven't gotten around to things
what did Artistotle say about self control? Akrasia - moral continence, discrepancy between beliefs/actions
what did Skinner say about self control? physical restrait, self-induced establishing operations, distracting behaviors, self-reinforcement and self-punishment
how did Skinner apply self control? a rigid schedule, writing productively (self experimentation, a bit each day), antecedent control "reminders"
what about self control and time? self-control as delay of gratification, SSRs and LLRs, poor self control as due to delay discounting, preference for SSRs over LLRs and impulsiveness vs self control
what did Michel say about self control? paradigm, marshmellow studies, longitudinal follow ups self control predicts future academic achievement, social skills, life success
what was the Ainslie-Rachlin model? why do we fail in self control despite early committment? rewards increase in value as we approach them in time
what else matters in the Ainslie-Rachlin model? difference between species, difference within species: clinical conditions in humans
how can implusivity be reduced? maturation, training with LLRs, satiation (lack of deprivation), medications?, inclusion of subgoals with their own SSRs
how can SSR value be reduced? behavior contracts, making SSRs unavailable, changing the self to view SSRs less well
what is punishment? consequence made contingent on a response that weakens a response
primary vs. secondary punishment primary is unconditioned, secondary is conditioned. intrinsic vs. extrinic.
Thorndike and Skinner on punishment Thorndike - synomin tes, punishment does not make right answer. Skinner - skinner box, hit rat after lever (temporary effect), coy response, serious response - effective = reduce behavior
what are the determinants of punishment efficacy? quality (effort of response), rate (lean or regular schedule), delay, don't allow habituation, mention replacement behavior, explain where appropiate
what are the side effects of punishment? strong emotions, aggressive reaction result=modeling?, punisher=SD for punishment, general decrease in behavior
what does punishment work? Skinner: distractionDismoor: avoidance responsesPremack: non-preferred activity for punishment
what is learned helplessness? a decrement in learning ability that results from repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive events
what applications are there of learned helplessness? depression, self-efficacy (Bandura's work)
APA ethical code in punishment beneficence, responsibility, integrity, justice, respect for others' dignity
is punishment ethical? 7 year old with self-injurous behavior kept in physical restraint 24/7, tried to ignored SIB, try differential reinforcement, both ineffective, contingent electrical shock (punishment) effective after 12 shocks when he stops entirely, is this ethical?
what does the primary motor cortex control? movement in specific areas of the body, it is active when people intend to move
what is the basil ganglia? a part of the brain that controls initiating and controlling actions, critical for learning motor skills, organizing sequences of movement, "automatic" behaviors
what is Parkinson's Disease? movement disorder characterized by muscle tremors, rigidity, slow movements, and difficulty initiating physical/mental activity, problems iniating spontaneous movement
what causes Parkinson's Disease? death of neurons in the substantia nigra and loss of dopamine leads to less stimulation of the motor cortex and slower onset of movement
Created by: 1376580076