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Urinary pathology


What should a correctly positioned KUB demonstrate? Both Kidneys, upper and lower poles.Superior portion of the pubic bones
What is the radiograph checked for? PrepRadiopaque calculitechnique and positioning is appropriateAny other abnormality
What is the function of the kidney 1. excrete urine2. regulate water.3. regulate salt or elctrolytes balance, acid base balance of the blood and body fluids
Outer portion of the kidneys that contains the arteries, veins, convuluted tubules and glomeral capsules cortex
where is urine produced in the glomeral capsules
What is the functional unit of the kidney nephron
What is the function of the nephron? To filter waste products form the blood and reabsorbs water and nutrients
What should the pH be in order to have a healthy metabolism? 7.35 to 7.45
Inner portion of the kidney medulla
What is contained in the inner portion of the kidney? renal pyramids, conical masses and calyces
What are the 3 parts of the medulla collecting ducts, renal pelvis(funnel shaped), and calyces
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder ureter
reservoir for urine bladder
a canal for discharge of urine, extending from the bladder to the outside urethra
absence of a kidney (the one kidney is usually larger) renal agenesis
congenital affect where there is 3 kidneys(3rd is usually smaller and has its own blood supply, ureter, and separate pelvis supernumerary kidney
small kidney; miniature replica of a normal kidney hypoplastic kidney
acquired condition that develops when one kidney is forced to perform the function normally carried out by two kidneys. More common in children compensatory hypertrophy
when the kidney dose not rotate and looks backwards. kidney is completely normal but looks abnormal due to its postion malrotation
abnormal positioned kidney ectopic
What are the names of the two types of ectopic kidneys Pelvic and intrathoracic
Ectopic kidney found in the true pelvis Pelvic Kidney
Ectopic kidney found above the diaphragm intrathoracic kidney
ectopic kidneys lies on the same side as the normal kidney and usually fused with it Crossed ectopia
Most common type of fusion anomly. both kidneys malrotated. lower poles joined by a normal renal pyrenchyma horseshoe kidney
Rare condition that produces a single irregular mass. It doesn't resemble a kidney. nicknames are disk, cake, lump, doughnut kidney complete fusion
anomaly that can vary from a common simple bifid pelvis to completely double pelvis, ureter and uterovessicle orifice duplication or duplex kidney
cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the bladder. Better diagnose thru ultrasound ureterocele
thin transverse membranes (males) cause by BOO (bladder outlet obstruction) in which can lead to severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter and renal damage. Best demonstrated by void cystourethrogram posterior urethral valves
nonsuppurative (forming pus)inflammation process involving the tufts of capillaries(glomeruli) that filter the blood within the kidney. Occurs a week after an acute upper respiratory or middle ear infection with certain strains of hemolytic strep Glomerulonephritis
suppurative inflammation of the kdney and renal pelvis caused by pyogenic(pus forming) bacteria. Usually occurs in women and children pyleonephritis
Severe form of acute parenchymal and perirenal infection with gas-forming bacteria. Occurs in diabetic patients. Also causes acute necrosis of the kidney Emphysematous Pyelonephritis
spread of TB to the kidney. Small granulomas scattered in the cortical portion of the kidney. Usually occurs as a secondary infection from lung involvement Renal Tuberculosis
Destructive process involving a varying amount of medullary papillae and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids. Caused by diabetes, pyelonephritis, sickle cell, UTI or obstruction, and phenacetin abuse Papillary Necrosis
Inflammatin of the urinary bladder. Occurs in females due to shorter urethra. Cause by bacteria present in fecal material that reaches urinary opening and traveling up to the bladder Cystitis
Forms in the kidney. Usually asymptomatic until they cause an obstruction. can be caused by hypercalcemia (increase calcium excretion), urinary stasis, and infection Urinary calculi (Kidney Stone)
Calcium deposits in the renal parynchema in which can occur in both kidneys. nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis
A stone that completely fills the renal pelvis, blocking the flow of urine staghorn calculi
When a stone is found within the ureters that resulted from the downward movement of the kidney stones Ureteral Calculi
Stones within the bladder. Most often in elderly men with obstruction or infection of the lower urinary tract Bladder calculi
enlargement of the kidney or ureters due to blockage Dilation
blockage above the level of the bladder with causes dilatation of the renal pelvicalyceal system (kidney) Hydronephrosis
blockage above the level of the bladder that causes dilatatin of the ureters Hydroureter
Urinary calculi, pelvic tumors, urethral stricture and enlarged prostate causes of Blockage in adults
Congenital malformations, caused by narrowing of the ureteropelvic junction, urterocele, retrocaval ureter, and posterior urethral valve Causes of blockage in children
Most common abnormality found in the kidney. Mass of the kidney that is fluid filled. Location is renal parenchyma. Varies in size. May occur in single or multiple sites or in one or both kidneys Renal Cyst Kidney
tumor of the adrenal medullary, 2nd most common malignancy in children. #1 abdominal neoplasm in infants & children. Can be bilateral and very large and palpable. Located in embryonic renal tissue Wilm's Tumor (Also called Nephroblastoma)
Inherited disorder. Multiple cysts varying in sizes. Causes enlargement of kidneys & progressive renal impairment. Leads to intra-renal obstruction. Located in the renal parenchyma Polycystic Kidney
Usually seen in men over the age 50. Causes are cigarette smoking & industrial chemicals. Produces finger-like projections into the lumen or wall of the bladder. Bladder Carcinoma
most common renal neoplasm. Increased risk factor after the age 40. Often a painless hematuria. Contains calcium in the tumor. 90% are malignant. Renal Cell Carcinoma (hypernephroma)
clot in the renal vein. Occurs in children severly dehydrated. Also occurs in adults from cdomplicaton of other renal disease. Causes occlusion of the renal vein. If untreated can cause the kidney to stop functioning Renal Vein Thrombosis
Rapid deterioration in the kidney function. Results in accumulation of nitrogen containing wastes in the blood & ammonia odor in the breath Acute Renal Failure
Long term kidney dysfunction that causes failure of the kidneys to clear nitrogen containing wastes in the blood which leads to accumulation of excessive levels of urea & creatine in the blood Chronic Renal Failure
What are the some things that chronic renal failure causes? 1. Bilateral renal artery stenosis2. Bilateral ureteral obstruction3. Intrensic renal disorders (ex. pyelonephritis
presence of excessive amounts of urea and nitrogen in the blood Uremia
Removal of urinary bladder cystectomy
Implanting ureters into the bowel ureterosigmoidostomy
Ends of ureters open into the skin surface Cutaneous ureterostomy
Segment removed from ileum to form a stoma, then the ureters implanted into it ileo conduit
Opening of the ureter to retrieve a stone. ureterotomy
removal of a stone lithotomy
removal of a kidney nephrectomy
Created by: arobinson68