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PSY100 Chapter 14

Terms from week 11

Psychological disorder Clinically significant disturbances that reflect a dysfunction in mental processing
Biomedical model Approach that considers disorders as diseases of the brain and emphasizes pharmacological treatment (medication)
Biopsychosocial model Approach that disorders are a product of biology, society, and psychological factors/predisposition
Diathesis-stress model Both genetics and stressful life events will predict the likelihood of developing a mental disorder
Evidence-based assessment Use standardized, reliable tests when assessing for possible diagnosis
Comorbidity Many disorders have similar symptoms that overlap, and so will often be diagnosed together
Abnormal/maladaptive behavior Distinction is that is MUST interfere with at least one important aspect of someone's life
Treatment The interaction between a client and a practitioner; may involve drugs
Psychotherapy Talk therapy; verbal interaction/communication between a patient and a therapist
Evidence-based practice Using a combination of clinical expertise, scientific evidence, and patient values/goals/beliefs to come to a diagnosis
Psychoanalytic therapy Focus on bringing unconscious thought to the conscious; increase patients insight into their own cognitive processes
Person-centered therapy (humanistic) Encourages a person to grow through self-understanding; unconditional positive regard of the patient
Cognitive therapy Attempts to modify maladaptive thought patterns; Restructure automatic negative thoughts to replace with healthier thought processes
Behavior therapy Attempts to modify maladaptive behaviors; reconditioning the person to behave differently in certain situations
Cognitive-behavioral therapy Combines practices to correct maladaptive thinking AND behavior at once
Psychotropic medication Drugs that affect mental processes
Aniolytics Anti-anxiety medication; increases GABA activity
Antidepressants Anti-depressant medication; increase serotonin levels
Antipsychotics Anti-psychotic medication; blocks the release of dopamine
Schizophrenia Disorder characterized by alterations of perceptions, emotions and thoughts/consciousness; treated with antipsychotics
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia Excess in behavior; hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech or behavior
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia Isolation, apathy, blunted emotion, monotonous speech
Factors that contribute to schizophrenia Frontal lobe dysfunction (enlarged ventricles and less brain matter), environmental stressors, THC drug use
Bipolar disorder Disorder characterized by extreme fluctuations in mood between manic and depressive episodes
Mania Elevated mood, less sleep, excessive interest in activities, racing thoughts, etc
Major depressive disorder Disorder characterized by presence of depressed mood or anhedonia
Anhedonia Lack of interest in things that usually interest you
Symptoms of major depressive disorder Loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, lack of energy and concentration, suicidal ideation, etc.
Potential factors leading to depressive disorder Learned helplessness, depressive attributional style, severe stress
Learned helplessness State where experiencing uncontrollable situations can lead to depression
Depressive attributional style Attribute failures to internal, global, stable causes (blame yourself and make broad negative assertations)
Beck's Cognitive triad Negative views about the self, the world, and the future all play off of each other and create a downward spiral of thought
Treatments for depression Antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and alternative treatment for those resistant to traditional methods
Anxiety disorders Disorder characterized by excessive or difficult to control fear or worrying
Symptoms of anxiety disorders Excess worry, restlessness, excessive startle response, autonomic system arousal
Generalized anxiety disorder Characterized by a constant negative/anxious feeling that is not linked to anything specifically; comorbid with depression
Specific phobias Fear caused by specific stimuli
Social anxiety disorder Fear/worry caused by social interaction
Agoraphobia Specific fear of being in a place and being unable to escape; comorbid with panic disorders
Panic disorder Characterized by random panic attacks with seemingly no cause; comorbid with agoraphobia
Potential causes of anxiety disorders High attention to threat levels, dysfunction in the amygdala/prefrontal cortex/fear circuitry in the brain, genetic predispostition
Treatment of anxiety disorders Anti-anxiety medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy
Obsessive Compulsive disorder Disorder characterized by having one/both of obsessions and compulsions
Obsessions recurrent intrusive/unwanted thoughts that often include fear
Compulsions Particular acts that one feels driven to repeat over and over
Possible causes of OCD Strong genetic component; accidental conditioning to fear a typically non-anxious event
Neurodevelopmental disorders Disorders typically diagnosed in childhood that persist throughout adult life; includes ASD, ADHD, and conduct disorder
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) Disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Disorder characterized by either unusual inattentiveness, hyperactivity with impulsivity, or both
Mood disorderes Disorders affecting the mood
Electroconvulsive therapy A biological treatment in which seizures are induced in an anaesthetized patient; it is used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders that have not responded to medication or other treatments
Deep brain stimulation Electrical stimulation applied through surgically implanted electrodes that is used to treat some anxiety and mood disorders
Created by: doctorpenguin
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