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Ancient Africa

Part II: African civilization and the spread of Islam

What was the Pre-Islamic Africa like? Extremely diverse soci. development
What was the political unity like? It was difficult bc of terrain
What is the primary lan. spoken? Bantu
What are the oral traditions like? Very few written records
Most communities are what ? Preliterate which means lacking a writing system
What was their religion(s)? they were animistic and polythesitic
List some of the things that they do or believed of / for their religion? Dancing/ drumming/ divination/ and sacrifice witchcraft/ cosmology power of natural forces; ritual and worship ancestors called upon
What 2 things were located in N. Africa : Islamic ? trade routes and Meditteranean trade
What was the agriculture like in the Sub-Saharan? ironworking; tribes and herders
What did African's exchange for manufactured goods They sold abundant raw materials like esp. salt
The Sahara is the world's largest desert and acted as a what? As a barrier to separate N Africa and Sub- Saharan Africa
What 2 Mediterranean cultures influenced N Africa Phoenicians and Romans
What year was North Africans part of the Islamic empire? 750 AD
North Africa was a part of the Islamic Empire and what did they convert to and what culture did they adopt? Converted to Islam and adopted Arabic culture
African societies south of the Sahara were what ? isolated
What did they miss on bc they were isolated? They missed out on the cultural diffusion of the Classical Era
What happened between 670 and 700? Rapid conversions by Berbers (Saharan nomads) Spreads along pre-existing caravan routes
What two people grow in power? Almoravids and Almohads who are ultra- conservitives
Reformers launched jihad against who? "lax" Muslims
What is a jihad? A war to spread and protect faith
Who won the war? Almohads defeat Almoravids
Almohad Caliphate was defeated by what? defeated in 1212 by an alliance of Christian kings (4)
What are they essential for? essential to spread Islam throughout Africa
Why is Islam attractive? Egalitarian; reinforced king's authority equal footing politically/ religiously/ economicly with Arabs
What are the characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa? Most soci. lived in farming villages in family based clans Few soci. had written language histories were shared orally by storytellers (griots) made iron tools
What was their religion ? polytheistic
what other religion did they practice? Animism of which spirits exist in nature
What are the three ways that many small African communities are politically organized in this way? There are authoritarian and centralized empires lack of concentration of power and authority weakness of stateless soci.
What was the lack of concentration of power and authority like? Authority and power normally exercised by a ruler and court is held by a council or families or community
Did the soci. have good jobs? Not a full- time job
one of the weaknesses of the stateless soci. was that there was no organization to collect what? Taxes
What was wrong with the military? It wasn't effective
What was the other problems with the soci.? 1. no consensus 2. No undertaking of large building projects
Because of no consensus, what was the probelm? It was the fact it was difficult to resist external pressures
What was the internal probelm? Internally: problems would be resolved by allowing dissidents to leave and establish new villages
what happened over the course of 4,000 years of the Bantu people? The bantu people of central Africa migrated south in search of farmland
What was the effect of the migration? Help to spread 1. New farming 2. ironworking techniques
The kingdom of Aksum traded with who? 1. Persia 2. India 3. Rome 4. Arabia
What happened bc of the trade with these 4 places? The Aksum became a wealthy (very) kingdom
The soci. of East African participated in what? Indian Ocean trade network They were also shaped by cultural diffusion
Where was along the coast by the 13th c. ? Islamized trading ports
Most merchants converted bc of ? financial motivation
Who was Iban Battuta was a Islamic scholar/writer
What did Iban do? He visited these cities
How does Iban refer to these cities? refers them as Muslim cities
What is Swahili ? Swahili is a language that was formed by Bantu and Arabic which emerged in urbanized trading ports
What is Syncretism ? It is the merging of different cultures
Describe the Swahili civilization it is a set of commercial city -states stretching along the E African coast
Kilwa, Mogadishu and Mombasa are all three related, how? All three are large city-state that are trading centers located along the coast
Each city - state was politically what? It was politically independent with its own king
Sharp class distinction in each city -state: what was it? there was big gap between the merchant elite class and the commoners
who introduced Islam to the East African trade cities? Arab Merchants
What did the mix fo African and Arabs cultures do? Led to the new Swahili language.
Towns had what? Mosques and were ruled by a Muslim sultan
many people kept what? Their traditional religious beliefs
Tell three things about Kilwa? 1. Located on East African Coast 2. Independent City-state (Not part of a kingdom) 3. Monopolized (Controlled) gold trade with interior
Created by: Sophie ER
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