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Vet Phys- The Eye


Important Structures of the eye orbit, globe, conjunctiva, lacrimal system, eyelids
What's the orbit of the eye? Bony fossa Separates eye from cranial skull cavity
What is the function of the orbit? Provides protection Attachment
What does the orbit contain? Eye, extraocular muscles, optic nerve, lacrimal gland
What are the eyelids? Dorsal and ventral folds of skin lined with palpebral conjunctiva Rest against ocular surface
What is the 3rd eyelid? nictitating membranes aqueous portion of tear film
Lacrimal gland aqueous portion of tear film
meibomian gland lipid part of tear film
Cherry eye in dogs prolapse of 3rd eyelid- Can't function properly
Clinical signs of cherry eye Discomfort, conjunctivitis, discharge, dry eye
conjunctiva mucous membranes lines eyelid and sclera
what does the conjunctiva consist of palpebral- lining the lids bulbar- covering the globe nictitans- covering 3rd eyelid
Conjunctiva contains..... Goblet cells, lymphoid tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels and nerves,
Functions of conjunctiva prevents corneal desiccation, increases eyelid mobility, protective barrier
Lacrimal system tears needed for normal function, ph of 6.8-8.0
functions of lacrimal system Maintain optimal surface, remove foreign material, antibacterial, permit 02 and nutrient passage
Sclera thick fibrous outer layer, contains blood vessels, white in colour
Functions of sclera joins cornea at the limbus
cornea clear, avascular, acts as eyes outermost lens
Functions of cornea controls and focuses entry of light into the eye 65-75% of eyes total focusing power
The globe outer: cornea/ sclera- supports and maintains shape/ assist passage of light middle: uvea (choroid, cillary body, iris)- provides nutrition/ oddities light entering inner: retina/ optic nerve- conversion of light impulse to electrical signals
Parts of the globe Cornea, sclera, uveal tract (iris, cillary body, choroid), lens, retina, vitreous
Uveal tract: Iris hole in centre of pupil
Function of iris movement of iris controls light quality entering the eye
antisocoria unequal size of pupils
Uveal Tract: Ciliary body located behind iris, between lens and choroid
function of cillary body secretes aqueous humour should flow from posterior chamber to anterior chamber- causes intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure raised pressure- glaucoma lower pressure- hypotomy
Uveal tract: Choroid lies between the sclera and retina contains mirror-like layer-shine from dog and cats eyes
function of choroid assists in re-stimulating the retina photoreceptors when light reflected back from it Increases visual sensitivity and assists with low light vision
The lens biconcave structure no blood vessels or pigment
Cataract opacity of the lens
nuclear sclerosis hardening of portion seen in older animals
The retina inner most layer at back of eye
retina contains... photoreceptor cells: rods and cones
the pupil allows entrance of light into eye
inside globe, 3 chambers filled with jelly like substances .... anterior chamber: aqueous humour posterior chamber: aqueous humour vitreous chamber: vitreous humour
Functions of the substances provides nutrients, removes waste products Maintain shape and pressure of the globe to allow persistent light refraction
amount of light allowed into eye determined by.... size of pupil (controlled by muscles of iris)
Creation of an image: Light enters eye, travels thru transparent corneas moves through aqueous and vitreous humours, through lens lens changes shape by contraction/ relaxation of the muscular cillary body Light stimulates photoreceptors in retinas, impulse sent optic nerve
2 main types of photoreceptor cell rods (black and white vision) cones (colour vision)
retinas of dogs and cats comprise mainly of.... rods but some cones present
dichromatic vision can distinguish some colours- can't distinguish subtle shade colours
Optic nerve of each eye crosses at... the optic chasm and enter the cerebral cortex via the mid brain
Created by: chloecarroll19
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