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PSY100 Chapter 2

Terms from week 2

Theory A set of facts that explains the relationship between two or more variables; broad scope supported by evidence
Explanatory theory Tie together facts and draw conclusions
Predictive theory Hypothesis made from theories
Properties of theories Testable, falsifiable, and parsimonious
Testability Ability to be tested on/for
Falsifiability Ability to be proven or disproven
Parsimoneousness Simplest explanation with the least amount of assumptions needed to be true
Hypothesis A proposed explanation for a situation ("If A, then B")
Construct A hypothetical internal attribute that cannot be directly observed but is useful for describing and explaining behavior/ variables that are hard to define and cannot be directly observed
Operational Definition Observable/measurable definition of constructs (physiological, behavioral, self report)
Conceptual definition Textbook/dictionary meaning of something
Independent variable Experimental variable that is changed by the experimenter, impacts the dependent variable
Dependent variable Experimental variable that is affected by change of the independent variable and is measured
Descriptive research Systematic observation and classification of a single variable of interest (large data pools, not casual)
Types of descriptive research Surveys, focus groups, case studies, observational research
Survey Method where all participants are asked the same questions; quick and easy but not detailed
Case Study An in-depth analysis of the behavior of one person or a small number of people; not easily generalizable; focus on non-repeatable/testable events (extraordinary)
Naturalistic Observation Passive; observers do not change or interact with behavior
Participant Observation Active; scientist is interacting with study group
Laboratory Observation Systematic observations made within a lab setting; highly detailed
Reactivity Phenomena where participants act differently if they know they are being watched (overproduction of demand characteristics)
Demand Characteristics What is being studied in an experiment
Correlational Research A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship/association between two variables (how variables are related); NOT CAUSAL
Directionality Problem Unknown which variable affects the other (does A cause B or B cause A?)
Third-variable Problem Unknown if a third variable affects the other variables (does C affect A and B?)
Correlation Coefficient Between +1.0 (positive, variables move in same direction) and -1.0 (negative, variables move opposite), with zero being no correlation
Experiment A research method that tests hypotheses and allows researchers to make conclusions about causality between two or more variables
Causal claims Cause-and-effect claims; A causes B; certain and tested
Random Assignment Each participant has an equal chance of being placed in any experimental group (provides most accurate data)
Random Sample Each member of the chosen population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in a study
Confound Irrelevant variable that can alter results; threat to internal validity
Double-blind experiment Situation where neither the participant nor the experimenter know which condition/group is being tested
Quasi-experiment Experimental design where random assignment is not possible
Field experiment Experimental design conducted in the 'real world' with no control over the environment
External validity Ability to be generalized (How broad can the findings be applied?)
Internal validity Causal validity (Are there confounds in the study? Is the effect due to the test or an outside variable? How well established are the relationships)
Reliability The consistency of a measure (same results every time the test is run)
Validity Correctness (is the test returning the results you are testing for)
Replication (Test-retest reliability) Repeating and experiment and getting the same results
Interrater Reliability Close agreement between highly trained raters/scorers of a test criteria
Descriptive Statistics Statistical methods that organize data into meaningful patterns and summaries (describes the data)
Construct validity How valid are the operationalizations (measures) being used?
Inferential statistics Extend conclusions from sample to population based on data (always probabilities, can never be proven)
Mean Average of a data set
Median Halfway mark in a set of data
Normal distribution/curve Symmetrical probability function (bell curve) where majority of the results will fall within a given percentage of the median value
WEIRD Samples White, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic; majority of test populations/samples (issue for external validity)
Open science Public access to researchers methods, tools, data, and experiments
Replication A study can produce similar results when performed multiple times
Reproduction A study/test can be done in the same way it was done the first time (does not guarantee same results)
Informed consent Participant consents to be a part of the study after being made fully aware of the conditions and possible risks of the study
Research Ethics Board Federally regulated board that assesses ethics of a study before it can be conducted
Debriefing Explaining the procedure to the patient after the experiment has finished and giving them all the needed information
Animal Care Commitee Federally regulated board that assesses ethics of animal studies before they can be conducted
Created by: doctorpenguin
Popular Psychology sets




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