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PC_ACP50000 Research

TermDefinition
Informed Consent a detailed form that explains the details of the study, including relevant information about the principle investigator, risks or benefits of participating in the study and participant rights.
assent for those who do not have the capacity to understand informed consent.
population the specific group of people that is the target of the research.
sample smaller subset of the population, is drawn.
research question a statement that identifies the key information that guides the research study.
variable a construct that infulances the study. GThere are three primary types of variables: independent, dependent, extraneous
independent variable one that can be manipulated or controlled, has more than one level or category that can vary, and can have an effect on the outcome of the dependent variable.
dependent variable the outcome that may be influenced by the independent variable and is measured; it cannot be manipulated.
extraneous variable can have a impact on the independent and/or dependent variable
confounding variable a variable that was not specifically identified and controlled from the beginning of the study, but has a direct impact on the dependent variable.
Internal validity the understanding the a change in the dependent variable is due the that independent variable as opposed to extraneous variables.
External validity the ability to generalize the results of the study. to a larger group than the sample that was studied.
Validity threats refer to variables that could impact the internal and external validity of the study.
statistics can be considered tools counselors can use to organize and interpret data obtained from a sample.
Descriptive statistics an approach used to organize, summarize, and describe a data set.
Inferential statistics use descriptive statistics to infer or draw conclusions about a variable or constant about a population from a sample
statistical hypothesis to test population differences. SH testing really involves determining if the is no statistical difference between two population means(i.e. null hypothesis)
level of significance or alpha level the probability they (counselor/researchers) are willing to wrongly reject the null hypothesis.
null hypothesis the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error.
type I error a counseling incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis. Noting a significant population difference exists when one does not exist
type II error When a counseling researcher fails to reject the null hypothesis when its noted no significant population exists when it does exist.
AARC The Association for Assessment and Research in Counseling
Four actionable interdependent steps that promote MSJ research a) Counseling researcher self-awareness b) Knowledge of research participant's world view. c) mutually beneficial counseling research relationship d) engagement in research advocacy.
Counseling research: Self-awareness Applying MSJCC to research activities. How social/professional identities affect their research. Seek knowledge and skills to foster research self-awareness. Explore their biases.
Counseling Research: Knowledge of research participant's world view. Conceptualized as the values, norms, biases, and assumptions derived from individual social experiences that impact the research process.
Counseling Research: Mutually beneficial Counseling Research Relationship. Where both participant and researcher benefit
Research Advocacy The adoption of research practices that serve to empower both the researchers and participants; these practices can result in improved client and student services and/or education and training opportunities.
Advocacy can occur at 6 levels of intervention. 1. Intrapersonal 2. Interpersonal 3. institutional 4. community 5. public policy 6. international
Research advocate conduct research that promotes cultural understanding and participant and community empowerment.
Research designs quantitative, qualitive, mixed-methods.
Quantitative Research Relies on numbers to test theories, measurements, and evaluations.
Qualitative Research exploratory approach, examines participants meanings or theoretical processes by analyzing participant narratives.
Experimental Research Research that involves an intervention where by a counselor researcher manipulates variables and/or conditions. The more stringently a variable or condition the more the design can be considered experimental.
Nonexperimental designs Do not include manipulated intervention of variables and/or conditions. Include: 1. descriptive designs 2. correlative designs 3. ex post facto designs
The four experiential designs 1. pre-experiential 2. Qazi-experiential 3. True experiential 4. single-subject research
Pre-experiential designs are those used when it is not possible for a counselor to randomly assign participants to a group or groups.
Qazi-experiential designs are those comparing groups that may naturally share characteristics.
True experiential designs considered the gold standard of experiential designs, involve two or more groups that can be randomly assigned and compared.
single-subject research designs allows the study of an individual or a group of individuals through repeated measures of target behavior.
non experimental - descriptive designs detailing a variable of interest at one time (simple descriptive) or over a long period (longitudinal)
non experimental - correlative design involves identifying the relationship between two variables or examining group differences on a variable.
non experimental - ex port facto research design also known as causal-comparative design, involves examining how an independent variable (measured previously) may have caused differenced for a dependent variable. Because data has already been collected, randomized--and thus experamentation--is not possible
ex post facto retroactively Latin. according to fact
Qualitative research designs The study of processes or phenomena. Counseling researchers seek to be immersed in data collection, understanding the process or phenomenon
naturalistic setting the context in which participants live and engage with each other.
thick description using strategies in data collection and analysis that comprehensively describe the participant's perspective.
common research traditions case study, phenomenology, grounded theory, consensual qualitative research, participatory action research.
Bounded Systems contained with district boundaries, with the case study pertaining to a time period, activity, and/or place. The purpose of using the case study tradition is to thickly describe the bounded system using multiple data collection methods and sources.
Case Study Known at the universal research tradition, a case study is a bounded system related to a specific event , process, activity, or individual(s)
Phenomenology a research tradition that seeks to understand the essence or overall deep description of a participants lived experience, with a direct purpose of understanding a specific phenomenon collectively from a first-person perspective. Researchers can ask participant about the five senses.
essence over all deep description of a participant's lived experience.
epoché (a-pOk) ἐποχή epokhē The setting aside of prior explanations of phenomena found in literature and acknowledging and bracketing off researchers' values and assumptions regarding phenomena.
Grounded Theory a research tradition that is an inductive approach means biases or preconceived notions are set aside to formulate a theory about phenomenon.
inductive approach a method of drawing conclusions by going from the specific to the general.
Consensual Qualitative Research Consensual research is a research tradition that approaches data collection and analysis with elements of both phenomenology and grounded theory. Participants are typically extremely knowledgeable about the topic being studied.
thick description a description of human social action that describes not just physical behaviors, but their context as interpreted by the actors as well, so that it can be better understood by an outsider.
Participatory Action Research a research tradition focused on the change of participants and the researcher throughout the inquiry process. Like consensual qualitative research, power is shared between the participants and the researcher.
Data Analysis Step 1. Reduce data: decide what data will be collected. Step 2. Collect data: Collect data according to the selected research tradition. Step 3. Memo and Summarize: Record details about the data collected, revisions in the research design moving forward. Step 4. Organize text: Making data useful by reducing or expanding created documents. Step 5. Code: label or "chunk" so it can be readily analyzed. Step 6. Identify themes and patterns: Step 7: Create Code Book Step 8: Develop a theory.
Mixed Method Research Designs Sequential exploratory: Qualitative data collected first followed by quantitative. Sequential explanatory: Quantitative data first then Qualitative. Concurrent triangulation: both analyzed at the same time Concurrent nested: Both qualitative and quantitative but one takes precedence over the other
Alpha Level The level of confidence for rejecting/accepting a null hupothesis.
null hypothesis no no statistical difference between two populations
Assent To agree to or approve
Between groups design compare two or more groups on changes based on group assignment.
Code a way to label or chunk data
Code-book The compilation of codes or patterns into a document.
Concurrent design collecting quantitative and qualitative data at the same time.
Confounding variable variables that affect other variables in a way that produces spurious or distorted associations between two variables.
spurious not being what it purports to be. (Latin illegitimate)
Consensual qualitative research data collection and analysis that combines both phenomenology and grounded theory
Constant comparison comparing data being analyzed with data already analyzed.
Correlational Design identifying the relationship between two variables or examining group differences on variables.
Dependent variable is the outcome that may be influenced by the independent and is measured; it cannot be manipulated.
Descriptive design detailing a variable of interest at one time (simple descriptive) or over a longer period (longitudinal)
Epoché The act of refraining from any conclusion for or against.
Essence Over all deep description of a participant's lived experience
Ethics guiding principles for counseling researchers when designing a study, conducting data collection and analysis, and reporting and publishing data.
Experimental design The process of carrying out research in an objective and controled fashion.
Ex post facto design involves examining how an independent variable affects a dependent variable
Questions to facilitate self-awareness Page 304 Introduction to counseling
Created by: KimSchroeder
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