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Psych Chapter 6

Memory System that allows us to retain information
Memory Encoding Process of converting info into a form that can be stored in memory
Memory storage Process of retaining info in memory
Memory retrieval Process of accessing stored info to make it available to consciousness
Retrieval cues Cues associated with the original learning that facilitated the retrieval of memories
Three-stage model A model of memory that posits 3 distinct storages of memory; sensory, short-term, long-term
Sensory memory Storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a short time
Sensory register A temporary storage device for holding sensory memories
Iconic Memory A sensory store for holding a mental representation for a visual image for a fraction of a second
Eidetic imagery Mental representation of a visual image (photographic memory)
Echoic memory A sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers in the ears
Short-term memory Memory subsystem that allows retension/processing of newly acquired info-max 30 seconds
Chunking Process of enhancing retention of a large amount of info by breaking it down into smaller, more easily recalled chunks
Maintenance rehearsal Process of extending retention of info held in short-term memory by consciously repeating the information
Long-term memory Memory subsystem responsible for long-term storage of info
Consolidation Process of converting short- term memories into long-term memories
Elaborative rehearsal Process of strengthening new memories by forming meaningful association between info and existing memories or knowledge
Semantic network model Representation of organizational structure of long-term memory
Levels of processing theory Belief that how well/long info is remembered depends on depth of encoding/processing
Declarative Memory Memory of facts and personal info that requires a conscious effort to bring to mind
Semantic memory Memory of facts
Episodic memory Memory of personal experiences
Retrospective memory Memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information
Prospective memory Memory of things one plans to do in the future
Implicit memory Memory evoked without any conscious effort to remember
Explicit memory Memory accessed through conscious effort
Constructionist theory Theory that holds that memory is not a replica of the past but a reconstruction of the past
Procedural memory Memory of how to do things, such as ride a bicycle, climb stairs, perform math equations
Flashbulb memories Enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently seared in the brain
Misinformation effect Form of memory distortion that affects eyewitness testimony and is caused by misinformation provided during retention interval
Decay theory Theory of forgetting that posits that memories consist of traces laid down in the brain that gradually deteriorate and fake away over time
Savings method Method of testing memory retention by comparing numbers of trials needed to learn material with the number of trials needed to relearn the material at a later time
Massed versus spaced practice effect Tendency for retention of learned material to be greater with spaced practice than with massed practice
Interference Theory Belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other
Retroactive interference Form of interference in which newly acquired info interferes with retention of material learned earlier
Proactive interference Form of interference in which material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired info
Overlearning Practice repeated beyond the point necessary to reproduce material without error
Serial position effect Tendency to recall items at the start or end of a list better than items in the middle of a list
Primary effect Tendency to recall items better when they are learned first
Recency effect Tendency to recall items better when they are learned last
Retrieval theory Belief that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon An experience in which people are sure they known something but cannot seem to bring it to mind
Repression In Freudian theory, a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety evoking material
Free recall A type of recall task in which individual are asked to recall as much info as they can about a particular topic in any order
Recognition task A method of measuring memory retention that assesses the ability to select the correct answer from a range of alternative answers
Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory of past events
Anterograde Amnesia Loss/impairment of ability to form/store new memories
Dissociative amnesia Amnesia involving the "splitting off"from memory of traumatic/troubling experiences
Engram Lashley's term for the physical trace of etching of a memory in the brain
Long term potentiation (LTP) Long term strengthening of neural connections as the result of repeated stimulation
Mnemonic Device for improving memory
Acrostic A verse or saying in which a latter of each word stands for something else
Constructive processing Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
Hindsight Bias Tendency to falsely believe through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event
False memory syndrome Creation of inaccurate/false memories through the suggestion of others, often while person is under hypnosis
False positive Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus not actively in memory
Misinformation effect Tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter memories of the event itself
Created by: Sydboyer15
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