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Psych People

Pavlov (1849–1936) Developed an experiment testing the concept of the conditioned reflex. He trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a metronome or buzzer, which was previously associated with the sight of food.
Robert Rescorla (1940-2020) Conducted research at the University of Pennsylvania on animal learning and behavior, focusing on associative learning and particularly Pavlovian conditioning.
John Watson (1878-1958) Known for the Little Albert experiment, in which he demonstrated that a child could be conditioned to fear a previously neutral stimulus. His research further revealed that this fear could be generalized to other similar objects.
John Garcia (1917-2012) American psychologist, most known for his research on taste aversion
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) First to apply psychological principles to the area of learning. His research led to many theories and laws of learning. His theory of learning, especially the law of effect, is most often considered to be his greatest achievement.
B.F Skinner (1904-1990) Inventor of the Skinner Box, he discovered the power of positive reinforcement in learning, and he designed the first psychological experiments to give quantitatively repeatable and predictable results.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Was the first to make a systematic study of the acquisition of understanding in children. He is thought by many to have been the major figure in 20th-century developmental psychology.
Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967) German psychologist and co-creator of gestalt psychology, influenced psychology by contributing to the gestalt theory and being the first to note insight learning.
Edward Tolman (1886-1959) American psychologist who developed a system of psychology known as purposive, or molar, behaviourism, which attempts to explore the entire action of the total organism.
Albert Bandura (1925-2021) Conducted a series of experiments on observational learning, collectively known as the Bobo doll experiments.
Alfred Binet (1857-1911), Theodore Simon (1873-1961) Developed the Binet-Simon scale, one of the most widely used scales in the world for measuring intelligence. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911, and served as a template for the development of newer scales.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Was the founder of psychoanalysis, a theory of how the mind works and a method of helping people in mental distress.
Charles Spearman (1863-1945) Was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for rank correlation coefficient
Louis Thurstone (1887-1955) Was a quantitative psychologist and past president of the American Psychological Association who is best known for advancing the methods of factor analysis, statistical methods used to explore latent factors underlying sets of observed variables.
Howard Gardner (1943) Is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be assessed by standard psychometric instruments
Robert Sternberg (1949) He is best known for his intelligence theory, which states that there are three aspects to intelligence. These are creative, analytical, and practical intelligence.
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) Was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
Karl Lashley (1890-1958) Stated that in the event of damage to one area of the brain, other parts of the brain can sometimes assume the role of the damaged region.
Abraham Maslow (1980-1970) was an American psychologist who created a hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.
Mihaly Robert Csikszentmihalyi (1934-2021) was a Hungarian-American psychologist. He recognized and named the psychological concept of "flow", a highly focused mental state conducive to productivity.
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings. He coined the phrase identity crisis and developed eight stages of psychosocial development.
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) was a Soviet psychologist, best known for his work on psychological development in children and creating concepts such as culture-specific tools, private speech, and the Zone of Proximal Development.
Carl Jung (1875-1961) developed theory of collective unconscious. He believed that human beings are connected to each other and their ancestors through a shared set of experiences. We use this collective consciousness to give meaning to the world.
Alfred Adler( 1870-1937) was a prominent Austrian psychologist whose theory states that all children are suffering from a inferiority complex. This complex is a deep-rooted feeling that a person is inferior to others and to outside expectations.
Karen Horney (1885-1952) Theorized that people combat basic anxiety by adopting one of three fundamental styles of relating to others: (1) moving toward people, (2) moving against people, or (3) moving away from people.
Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) He believed personality is largely governed by biology, and he viewed people as having two specific personality dimensions: extroversion vs. introversion and neuroticism vs. stability.
Raymond Cattell (1905-1988) proposed that general intelligence is actually a conglomeration of perhaps 100 abilities working together in various ways in different people to bring out different intelligences.
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. created a highly influential three tiered hierarchy of personality traits.
Julian Rotter (1916-2014) was an American psychologist known for developing social learning theory and research into locus of control.
Walter Mischel (1930-2018) suggested that an individual's behavior is not simply the result of his or her traits, but fundamentally dependent on situational cues—the needs of a given situation, leading him to develop the cognitive-affective model of personality.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Esteemed as one of the founders of humanistic psychology, his theory of personality involves a self-concept, which subsumes three components: self-worth, self-image and ideal self.
Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. His education in art helped to spur the development of a set of inkblots that were used experimentally to measure various unconscious parts of the subject's personality.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Formed the 1st psychology laboratory in Germany in 1879, the Institute for Experimental Psychology and Considered the “father of psychology”
Edward Titchener (1867-1927) Wundt’s student; brought Wundt’s ideas to Cornell University, NY and coined the term “structuralism”
Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of biological evolution by natural selection, defined evolution as "descent with modification," the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species, and share a common ancestor.
William James (1842 – 1910) Proposed functionalism and taught the first psychology classes in America at Harvard University
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Formulated Gestalt psychology in response to structuralism arguing “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”and studied sensation and perception
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) his ecological systems theory is one of the most accepted explanations regarding the influence of social environments on human development. This theory argues that the environment you grow up in affects every facet of your life.
Dr. Joseph L. White (1932–2017) Known as the ”godfather of Black psychology,”he argued that psychology frequently and wrongly described Black people as deviant or lacking because it relied on Eurocentric norms for understanding behavior.
Albert Ellis (1913-2017) was a psychologist most famous for developing rational emotive behavior therapy. This therapy modality rests on the theory that underlying thoughts and beliefs are what cause emotional problems for individuals.
Aaron Beck (1921-2021) developed cognitive therapy in the early 1960's as a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. He designed and carried out a number of experiments to test psychoanalytic concepts of depression.
Created by: Sydboyer15
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