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debates key terms

hazards and disease

Sea-floor spreading Lateral movement of new oceanic crust away from a mid-ocean ridge.
Rift valley A valley formed by downfaulting between parallel faults.
Palaeomagnetism The direction of the Earth’s magnetic field.
Benioff A zone of faulting at convergent plate boundaries.
Hot spot A plume of magma rising to the surface.
Escarpment A tilt block forming an extensive upland area, with a short, stepp, scarp slope and a long, gentle, dip slope on the other side.
Asthenosphere The layer in the earth mantle below the lithosphere. The high temperatures caused the rocks to soften and become viscous meaning that they can easily deform.
Lithosphere Layer in the Earth's mantle above asthenosphere together with the crust which is divided into a series of tectonic plates. The lithosphere is rigid and is moved by the flows of semi-molten rock in the asthenosphere .
Continental drift The theory that the continents are mobile and have moved across the earth's surface through geological time.
Seismic Relates to the earthquakes or other movements of the Earth and its crust.
Tectonic plates A large slab of the Earth's lithosphere and crust.
Transform faults Large-scale Sports in the cross at right angles to a mid-ocean ridge, which range from a few tens of kilometres to several hundred. earthquakes occur along their lengths as they slip.
Pillow lavas Grounded moulds of lava erupted along mid-oceanic ridges, which cool rapidly with contact with the water.
Plutons Mass of igneous rock injected into overlying rock deep in the crust.
Subduction The tectonic process found at convergent plate margins where an oceanic plate descends into the Earth's mantle and is destroyed.
Ocean trench Narrow deep depression on the ocean floor adjacent to a subduction zone.
Black smokers Hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor at constructive or destructive plate boundaries. The water carries a large amount of metal sulphides.
Graben The downfaulted section of a rift valley.
Island arcs Chain of volcanic Islands formed along the subduction zone.
Explosive A violent eruption owing to the build-up of pressure within a volcano, due to viscous magma preventing the escape of gases.
Effusive A gentle free-flowing basic eruption of lava, eg basalt.
Stratro- volcanoes A steep sided volcano made up of layers of lava and Ash emitted during explosive eruptions.
Sills A minor, approximately horizontal, intrusion of magma into surrounding older rocks.
Dykes Vertical or near vertical minor intrusion of magma through surrounding older rocks.
Calderas Large-scale volcanic crater formed as a result of an explosive eruption which emptied the magma chamber causing the volcano sides to subside.
Denudation The wearing away of the earth's surface by weathering and erosion.
Shield volcanoes Volcano with a broad base and gently sloping sides. It forms from the effusive eruption of fluid basalt lava.
Archipelago Closely grouped cluster of islands.
Super-volcano Volcano that erupts more than 1000 km 3 of material in a single eruption event.
Epicentre Point at the surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
Infectious A disease spread by parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi etc.
Non-infectious A non-communicable disease due to age, genetic defects.
Communicable An infectious disease that spreads from host to host.
Non-communicable A disease that cannot be spread between people.
Contagious A disease spread by contact or indirect contact between people.
Non-contagious Diseases not spread through infection or through people but by behaviours.
Zoonotic An infectious disease that is transmitted between species from animals to humans.
Epidemiology The study of how and why diseases occur in different groups of people.
Endemic A disease that exists permanently in a geographical area or human group.
Epidemic A disease outbreak that spreads quickly through the population of a geographical area.
Pandemic And epidemic which spreads worldwide.
Disease vectors A carrier, eg mosquitoes that transmit an infectious disease.
Relocation diffusion Occurs when a disease leaves one area and moves to another.
Contagious diffusion Describes the spread of a disease through direct contact with a carrier.
Hierarchical diffusion Diffusion through a sequence of carriers; spread along roads and railways.
Expansion diffusion Occurs where a disease starts in one location and spreads out.
Biopiracy The exploitation of medicinal drugs from wild environments by pharmaceutical companies with little or no benefit to indigenous people.
Created by: gbrinnjohnson
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