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Psychology - Spencer

MCPHS Psychology Spencer Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is Confucius's belief is the purpose/meaning of life? Purpose of life in found in the course of ordinary human existence through discipline, education, and strong relationships with other people.
What is Plato's belief is the purpose/meaning of life? Proposed that life's meaning is provided by true knowledge of what is good.
What is Aristotle's belief is the purpose/meaning of life? Ultimate goal of life is happiness achieved by living in accordance with virtue, attainment of one's highest potential.
What is Bentham's belief is the purpose/meaning of life? The purpose of life is to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people (stands out from others)
When research reports that "most people are happy" what does this mean? This means that most people score above the midpoint of life satisfaction scales.
What do authors and social scientists (which include psychologists) have focused on and what have they paid little attention to? social scientists have focused on preventing and solving problems. They have not paid enough attention to living well and moving beyond the mere absence of what is negative.
How is psychology descriptive? psychology uses scientific methods to describe the "what" and the "why" of the human condition. It privileges empirical (numerical; data collected using different ways) as the raw material.
How is psychology prescriptive? psychology is this because it is influenced by the beliefs and values of scientists. Also chose certain topics as most deserving of study- usually that address concerns regarding human condistion. (research support, course enrollmen, ect..)
What are the two problems that "plague current knowledge in psychology about how to improve human condition?" 1) Psychologists know more about problems and how to eliminate them then how to move people beyond zero point of distress and pathology to a life that is not simply better, but actually good. 2) psychological knowledge is fragmented and disconnected
What is "the little dirty secret of psychological interventions?" "palliative" ; you can't really fix a problem, but you can try.
Provide an example of how a component of good life can be bad (or related to bad outcomes). -optimistic people undermine risks -extreme life satisfaction has an occasional downside depending on the outcome of interests -too many choices can overwhelm an individual, leading to rumination and regret
Why do the authors of "Achieving and Sustaining a Good Life" suggest we need more "interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration" to understand how to achieve and maintain a good life? -recent studies of high impact scientific articles show that articles resulting from collaboration have higher impact -meaning experts from different feilds bring different perspectives
What is social integration? engaging in diverse types of relationships.
What are the health benefits of social integration? *stronger network=better protection* -greater resistance to infectious disease -better prognoses when facing life-threatening diseases -lower dementia -decrease risk of CV disease
List the types of studies used to study social integration and health. -longitudinal studies -prospective studies -Berkmen & Syme (1979) -Cohen (1997) -Seeman (1993)
What is the difference between social integration and perceived social support? S.I.-engaging in diverse types of relationships P.S.S.- belief that one could turn towards someone for aid (cognitive makes them different)
What are the benefits to perceived social support? - protection against increased risk of mortality -delaying progression of chronic life-threatening illness.
Why is P.S.S. believed to beneficial? -the protective effect occurs because it reduces stress associated with having a fatal disease
What are some of the negative aspects of social relationships? -social losses, negative interactions, loneliness(detrimental to health)
Do the side, consistency, and range of the established relationships between our social networks cause our morbidity and mortality? -often leads up to talk about them as if they were causual, but psychologists do not know if this is true or not.
What are the "third" factors that could influence the nature of our social networks and hour health? -age -sex- -ethnicity -socioeconomic status
Why is it important to know if altering our social networks will improve our physical health? - has potential of controlling health care costs - promotes happierand healthier lives important for older people to commonly experience major social transitions -essential for those with life-threatening illnesses
What have researches been able to determine about social networks and health? "strong reliable association between the diversity of our scoail networks andour longevity and risk for disease"
What have researches not been able to determine about social networks and health? " do not have convincing causual evidence and not have still designated interventions that influence the key components of network and physical health"
How is stress defined? -a stimulus -a response to a stimulus - or a physiological consequence of that response
What is a stressor? -circumstances that threaten a major goal, including the maintenance of ones physical integrity
What is distress? -negative psysiological response to such threats and can include a variety of affective and cognitive states such as anxiety, sadness,frustration,, the sense of being overwhelmed, and helplessness.
What properties of stressful circumstances influence the severity of the psychological and physiological response? Controlability-whether responses can effect outcomes of the stressor Ambiguity-level of demand placed on the individual Duration- time period/ length of stressor
Provide an example of a response to a threat. -fight or flight -increases availabvle concentrations of glucose -inhibits process that promotes growth and production
What are the three most carefully studied systems of the body that have shown to change in response to stressors? 1)Autonomic Nervous System 2)Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis 3) Impact on the Immune System
What physiological changes did Walter Cannon propose in response to emergency situations? -release of epinephrine from Adrenal Medulla
What are the components of the ANS, and which comes into p[lay during threatening situations? -parasympatheic nervous system -sympathetic nervous system- comes into playing during threatening situations
What do ACTH and CRH stand for? From there are each released? ACTH-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-releassed by the Anterior Pituitary CRH-Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone- released by the Hypothalamus
Between the ANS and the HPA-Axi, which system take longer to fully activate? HPA-Axis takes minutes, while the ANS takes seconds, so HPA-Axis takes longer.
What types of immune functions can be diminished by exposure to stressful experiences? -reduce circulating levels of classes of immunological cells called lymphocytes -slow integrated immune responses
What evidence do we have that there is a link between the ANS and the immune system? Individuals' autonomic reactivity to stressors correlates with the degree to which their immune system is affected by acute laboratory stressors.Extensive evidence shows that autonomic nerve fibers enter into immune organs and alter cells residing there
What types of immune responses can be enhanced by exposure to stressors? How can these enhancer be harmful (contribute to diease)? -closely related to inflammation -chronic stress can lead to inappropriate inflammation that is at the root of a host of diseases (auto immune and CVD)
Can the immune system affect the brain and one's psychological state? Explain. Yes, cytokines and act on the CNS and cause behavioral changes that resemble sickness (increase body temp and also mimic depression)
What is allostatic load? cumulative toll of chronic overactivation of the physiological systems that are designed to respond to environmental perturbations
What are some of the health implications found to be caused by chronic exposure to stressors or distress? -can cause atrophy in s part of the brain called the hippocampus, resulting in memory loss -increase vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in individuals exposed to a virus
What did Hans Selye say about the physiological response to stress? What "triad" of changes did he observe in the rodents he studied? -he argued that physiological response to stressful circumstances is nonspecific 1) Shrinking of thymus 2) enlargement of the adrenal gland 3) ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract
What is the difference between the generality model and the specificity model? Specificity-specific pattern of neural and hormonal changes designed to respond to a specific type of threat General- hormones and neurons are nonspecific
What is cognitive appraisal? process of categorizing a situation in terms of its significance for well-being.
What is Secondary appraisal? relates to perceptions of the resources available to meet the demands of the circumstance.
What is Primary appraisal? relates to perceptions of goal threats
What is the difference between threat and challenge, and how are they associated eith distinctive ANS alterations? threat- results when demands in a given situation are perceived to outweigh the resources challenge- associated with increases in the sympathetic nervous system & reduced or unchanged peripheral resistance
What is self-control? the capacity for altering one's own responses to bring them into line with standards such as ideals, values, morals, and social expectations, and to support the pursuit of long-term goals.
What is the difference between self-control and self-regulant? -self-control- you can control self regulation- homeostatic process of the body ex: constant body tempurature
Why is the topic of self-control attracting attention from psychologists? Self-control holds key important in the nature and functions of the self and is useful in applications of impulse and behavioral problems.
What behavioral and emotional problems have been linked to inadequate self-control? Behavioral: alcohol/drug abuse, crime and violence, smoking, unwanted pregnancy, sex abuse, overeating Emotional: school underachievement, lack of persistence, failures in task performances, relationship problems ect.
The view that self-control as dependent on a limited energy resource is based on what? based on a review of multiple research literatures by Bauchmeister 1994.
Describe one piece of evidence that points toward the conclusion that one act of self-regulation results in depletion of self-control resources 1) Evocative film 2) Forbidden thought 3)Temptation to eat chocolate or cookies
What does ego depletion refer to? the state of diminished resources following exertion of self-control
How can a glass of lemonade with sugar counteract depletion? by restoring glucose in blood
How is self-control like muscle? 1) exercise makes it stronger 2) gets fatigued 3) can conserve the energy
Are there self-control states resembling sprained or injured muscles? Yes, over depletion.
Identify responses that require self-regulation. -fixing attention -controlling thoughts -managing emotions -overcoming unwanted impulses -guiding behavior -making many choices
Name behaviors that seem to be sensitive to the depletion of self-regulatory resources. -Eating among Dieters -Overspending -Aggression after being provoked -Sexual Impulses -Intelligent and logical decision making
Identify interpersonal responses that require self-regulation. -Self-presentation or impression management -kindness in response to a partner's bad behavior -dealing with demanding, difficult partners -interracial interactions
Is there anything that can reduce the impact of ego depletion? replenishing glucose in the bloodstream may reduce impact of ego-depletion
Are there any physcial indicators of ego depletion? -Heart-rate variability -Neural changes using electroencephalographs methods
What can be done to counteract ego depletion(besides glucose intake)? -humor -preparing for stressful situations ("if then")
What are the positive associations with self-control? -good adjustment -secure attatchment -other favorable psychological traits
What are some negative associations with self control? -psycholopathological complaints and symptoms -increased vulnerability to various substance-abuse and eating disorders
What are some of the negative associations with depleted resources? -sexual misbehavior -violence -subjective distress -social deviance -persistence of behavior -psychological handicap
norm the rules or expectations of a group.
schemas Mental representations that bias the way new information is interpreted and recalled.
self-efficacy The belief that one is able of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome.
Stress Response The physiological Chanes that occur when a stressor (physical or psychological) is experienced.
Nervous System Comprised of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system , provides quick responses to stimuli motor and sensory nerves
Central Nervous System The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to other parts of the body.
Structuralism -analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind -break things down into pieces -bulding blocks -what happening, not helping others
Gestalt Psychology A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often percieve to adapt rather than the sum of parts -experience greater than putting blocks together -adding your own experiences/opinion
Functionalism -the study of the purposes of mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment -careless of structure -how do they work and why do they work that way -how do we remember things -
Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud's approach to inderstanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of oncious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. -unconcious part of mind we don't have access to
Cognitive Theory the scientific study of mental processes including perception, though, memory, and resoning - does not use unconscious, but does use subconscious and preconscious -reassuring/ problem solving -what is your approach to solve things
Prospective Study a study that is planned before the data has been collected: that is, research that starts with the present and follows study participants forward in time, an in randomized experiments and in longitudinal research.
Longitudinal Study The study of a variable or a group of variables in the same cases or participants over a period of time; sometimes over several years.
Correlational Study A study of a relationship between two or more variables.
Experimental Study A system of scientific investigation, usually based on a design to be carried out under controlled conditions, that is indented to test a hypothesis and establish a casual relationship between independent and dependant variables.
Intervention Study Activities designed to measure how much better a situation is after a systematic modification has been imposed or to measure the effects of one type of intervention program as compared to those of another program.
Quasi-experimental Study Research in which the investigator cannot control or manipulate the independent variable but can determine how the dependent variable is measured.
Random Assignment To assign participants or other sampling units to the conditions of an experiment at random, that is, in such a way that each participant or sampling unit has an equal chance of being assigned to any particular condition.
Randomized Clinical Trail An experimental design in which the patients are randomly assigned to either a group that will receive an experimental treatment or one that will receive s comparison treatment or placebo.
Created by: daszlosek