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Unit 5 Vocabulary

Electric Charge Charger carried by protons and electrons
Electric Field An area of force surrounding every electric charge that causes other charges to be attracted or repelled
Law Of Conservation Of Charge Charge can be transferred from object to object, but it is not created or destroyed
Conductor Material through which electrons move easily (metals) (have difficulty maintaining charge)
Insulator Material in which electrons are not able to move easily (plastics)
Static Electricity The accumulation of excess electric charge on an object
Static Discharge Transfer of charge between two objects because of a buildup of static electricity
Charging by contact Process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing (maintain charge)
Van de Graaff Generator Static electricity generator
Faraday Cage Metal enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields (electrons flow on the outside of a metal object, not through it)
Charging By Induction The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object
Lightning A large static discharge between clouds and ground
Grounding Providing a path for charge to reach Earth to prevent charge from building up
Electroscope A device that can detect electric charge
Electric Current The net movement of electric charges in a single direction
Direct Current (DC) current that never changes direction (battery powered devices)
Alternating Current (AC) current that continually changes direction (60 Hz in USA. 50 Hz in Europe)
Inverter Device that switches DC to AC or AC to DC
Dry Cell Battery Two electrodes surrounded by an electrolyte paste (AA and Lithium batteries)
Wet Cell Battery Two connected plates made of different metals in an electrolyte solution
Electric Circuit A closed path that electric current flows
Resistance The tendency for a material to resist a flow of electrons and to convert electrical energy into other forms (especially heat)
Ohm's Law The current in a circuit equals voltage difference divided by the resistance
Series Circuit Circuit with only one branch
Parallel Circuit Two or more branches for current
Fuse An electrical safety device that contains a small piece of metal that melts and opens a circuit if the current becomes too high
Circuit Breaker An electrical safety device that contains a switch that opens a circuit if the current becomes too high
Voltage Difference The net force that causes electric charges to flow
Electrical Power Rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
Electrical Energy Energy from electron movement
Magnetism A force of attraction and repulsion between magnetic objects
Magnetic Field A region of space that surrounds a magnet and exerts a force on other magnets and magnetic materials (from north to south)
Magnetic Poles The regions of a magnet that exert the strongest magnetic force (north and south)
Magnetic Declination Angular difference on a compass between geographic north and magnetic south
Magnetic Domains Groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles
Permanent Magnet Any magnet whose domains remain aligned For a length of time without an external field
Temporary Magnet Material that remains magnetized for a short period of time
Electromagnetic Force The attractive or repulsive force between electric charges and magnets
Electromagnetism The interaction between electric charges and magnets
Solenoid A single wire wrapped into a cylindrical wire coil (more powerful magnetic field than single loop)
Electromagnet Temporary magnet created when there is a current in a wire (solenoid wrapped around an iron core)
Galvanometer Device that uses an electromagnet to measure electric current
Electric Motor A device that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy
Electromagnetic Induction The generation of an electric current by changing the magnetic field
Generator A device that uses electromagnetic induction to transform mechanical energy to electrical energy
Turbine Large wheel that rotates when pushed by water, wind, or steam to drive generators
Transformer Device that increases or decreases the voltage of an alternating current
Created by: 26mccava
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