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Adrenal Glands

Endocrine System, Andrenal Glands and Pancreas

Adrenal Glands Lie along superior border of each kidney.
Adrenal Glands subdivided Superficial Adrenal Cortex and Inner adrenal medulla.
Adrenal cortex A. Stores, lipids, especially cholesterol and fatty acids (B) Manufactures steroid hormones (corticosteroids)
Adrenal medula 1.Secretory activities controlled by sympathetic division of ANS. 2. Produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. 3.Metabolic changes persist for several minutes.
Adrenal cortex subdivided 1. Zona glomerulosa 2. Zona fasciculata 3. Zona reticularis
Zona Glomerulosa Outer region of adrenal cortex. Produces mineralocorticoids. Ex. aldosterone.
Aldosterone Stimulates conservation of sodium ions and eliminating of potassium. 2. Increases sensitivity of salt receptors in taste buds
Aldosterone Secretion respond Drop in blood Na, blood volume, or blood pressure. Rise in blood K Concentration.
Zona Fasciculata Produces glucorticoids. Ex. cortisol (hydrocortisone) with corticosterone. Liver converts cortisol to cortisone.
Zona Fasciculata secretion regulated by Negative feedback.
Zona fasciculata inhibitory effect production Corticotropin=releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus. ACTH in adenohypohysis.
Glucocorticoids Accelerate glucose synthesis and glycogen formation. Show anti-inflammatory effects. Inhibit activities of WBC and other components of immune system.
Zona Reticularis Network of endocrine cells. forms narrow band bordering each adrenal medulla. Produces androgens under stimulation by ACTH.
Adrenal Medulla two types of secretory cells One produces epinephrine (adrenaline) 75 to 80 %of medullary secretions. Produce Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) 20 to 25 % medullary secretions.
Activation of the adrenal medullae has the following effects: Skeletal muscles, epinephrine and norepinephrine trigger mobilization of glycogen reserves. Accelerate breakdown glucose to provide ATP. Combination increases both muscular strength and endurance. Adipose tissue, stores fats broken down fatty acids.
Activation of the adrenal medulae Release into the bloodstream for other tissues to use for ATP production.
Pineal Gland Lie in posterior portion of roof of third ventricle. Contains pinealocytyes. Synthesize hormone melatonin.
Function of Melatonin Inhibits reproductive functions. Protects against damage by fee radicals. Influences circadian rhythms.
Pancreas Lies between: Inferior border of stomach and proximal of small intestine . Contains exocrine and endocrine cells.
Exocrine Pancreas Consists of clusters of gland cells called pancreatic acini and their attached ducts. Roughly 99% of pancreatic volume. Gland a duct secrete alkaline, enzyme rich fluid
Endocrine Pancreas Consists of cell that form cluster known as pancreatic islets. or islet of Langerhans.
Endocrine Pancreas 1. Alpha cells produce glucagon. 2. Beta cells produce insulin 3. Del cells produce peptide hormone identical to GH-IH 4. F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
Created by: Maguirre1537
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