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Unit 3 Vocabulary

Energy Ability to cause a change
Joule Energy due to motion
Kinetic Energy Energy stored due to the interactions between objects
Potential Energy Energy stored by compressing or stretching an object
Chemical Potential Energy Energy due to chemical bonds
Gravitational Potential Energy Energy due to the gravitational forces between objects
System Anything around which you can imagine a boundary. Can be one object or a group of objects
Law Of Conservation Of Energy Under ordinary circumstances (no nuclear reactions), energy is neither created or destroyed. Energy can change forms, though!
Mechanical Energy Sum of KE, PEs, and GPE of all the objects in a system
Thermal Energy Energy from the motion of all particles that make up an object (Heat)
Radiant Energy Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (also called light energy)
Electrical Energy Energy due to the movement of electrons within atoms
Chemical Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds
Sound Energy Energy carried by sound waves
Energy Conversions The process of changing one form of energy into another
Radiometer Light to mechanical energy
Regenerative Braking Converts mechanical energy to electrical energy (using electric motors) which can be used to accelerate the car later (more efficient)
Work Force applied through a distance (or the transfer of energy through motion)
Power Rate at which work is done or energy is converted
Watt The SI unit for power
Machine A device that changes force or increases motion from work
Simple Machine A machine that does work with only one movement of the machine
Inclined Plane Simple machine consisting of a sloping surface, used for raising heavy bodies
Lever A bar used to pry or move something
Fulcrum The point on which a lever rests or is supported and on which it pivots
Input Arm The side of a lever on which force is applied
Output Arm The side of a lever that does useful work
1st Class Lever A very simple machine comprised of a beam placed upon a fulcrum
2nd Class Lever A lever with the load between the fulcrum and the effort
3rd Class Lever Levers in which the fulcrum is at one end and the force is applied in the middle and the weight on the other end
Wheel and Axle Consists a wheel with the rod through the center of it known as the axle
Screw Inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
Wedge Two ramps put back to back together
Pulley Grooved wheel with a rope running over the groove
Single Moveable Pulley Pulley attached to an overhead support (doesn’t move)
Compound or Complex Machine Combination of two or more simple machines
Rube Goldberg Machine A machine designed to do a simple task in a very complex way
Input Force Force applied to a machine
Output Force Force applied by the machine
Input Distance Distance over which we apply force
Output Distance Distance we move something with the machine (usually height lifted)
Work Input Work we do in using a machine
Work Output Work done by a machine
Efficiency Ratio of output work to input work
Ideal Machine A machine in which output work would be equal to or greater than input work
Mechanical Advantage Number of times a machine multiplies input force
Ideal Mechanical Advantage Number of times a machine should multiply input force
Actual Mechanical Advantage Number of times a machine actually multiplies input force
Bionics The science of designing artificial replacements for parts of the human body
Prothesis Artificial replacement part
Created by: 26mccava
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