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IER Chapter 1

Musculoskeletal PT (IER Chapter 1)

First Class Lever System The fulcrum/axis is located between the force & resistance. Designed for balance. Ex: triceps for elbow extension; a playground seesaw
Second Class Lever System Axis at one end, resistance in middle, force at the other end. Designed for power. Ex: closed-chain plantar flexion, a wheelbarrow
Third Class Lever System Axis at one end, force in the middle, resistance at the other end. Designed for ROM. EX: biceps for elbow flexion
Arthrokinematic motions "Movement between joint surfaces." Roll, Slide/Glide, and Spin
Convex-Concave Rule When a convex is moving on a fixed concave surface, the convex surface moves opposite. When a concave surface moves on a fixed convex, the concave surface moves in the same direction.
Elbow's (humeroulnar) Loose-Packed Position 70 deg flexion & 10 deg supination
Elbow's (humeroradial) Loose-Packed Position Full extension & supination
Proximal Radioulnar Loose-Packed Position 70 deg flexion & 35 deg supination
Distal Radioulnar Loose-Packed Position 10 deg supination
Hip Loose-Packed Position 30 deg flexion, 30 deg abduction & slight lateral rotation
Knee Loose-Packed Position 25 deg flexion
Talocrural Loose-Packed Position Mid inversion/eversion & 10 deg plantar flexion
Subtalar & Mid-tarsal Loose-Packed Position Midway between extremes of ROM with 10 deg plantar flexion
Elbow's (humeroulnar) Close-Packed Position Full extension & supination
Elbow's (humeroradial) Close-Packed Position 90 flexion & 5 deg supination
Proximal Radioulnar Close-Packed Position 5 deg supination & full extension
Distal Radioulnar Close-Packed Position 5 deg supination
Hip Close-Packed Position Ligamentous: full extension, abduction & internal rotation. Bony: 90 deg flexion, slight abduction & slight external rotation
Knee Close-Packed Position Full extension & external rotation
Talocrural Close-Packed Position Full dorsiflexion
Subtalar Close-Packed Position Full inversion
Normal end feels Soft, firm, hard
Pathological end feels Boggy, firm, rubbery, empty, hypermobile
Glenohumeral Capsular Pattern Greater limitation of external rotation, followed by abduction and internal rotation
Elbow Capsular Pattern Loss of flexion > extension
All forearm joints Capsular Pattern Equally restricted in pronation & supination
Hip Capsular Pattern Limited flexion/internal rotation, some limitation of abduction, little or no limitation of adduction or external rotation.
Talocrural Capsular Pattern Loss of plantar flexion > dorsiflexion
Accessory Joint Motion Grading Akylosed (0), considerable hypomobility (1), Slight hypo (2), normal (3), slight hyper (4), considerable hyper (5), unsatable (6)
Elbow Biomechanics Ulna pronates with extension & supinates with flexion. Proximal ulna glides medially during extension & laterally during flexion. (Screw home mechanism with flexion/extension)
Hip's Angle of Inclination 115-125 deg
Coxa Valga >125 deg
Coxa Vara <115 deg
The femoral neck angles anteriorly 10-5 deg from frontal plane to form the anterior antetorsion angle. What are anteversion & retroversion? Anteversion: >25 deg (if uncompensated would cause toeing in); Retroversion: <10 deg
Created by: carsonwolf



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