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Human development

Chapters 5, 6,7,8

Erickson's 8 psychological stages Infancy (birth- 1yr) Basic trust vs. mistrust Toddlerhood(1-2) Autonomy vs. shame Early childhood (3-6) Initiative vs.guilt Middle childhood ( 7-12) Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence adulthood (20-40) Identity vs. role confusion Early adulthood (2
Gross motor skills physical abilities that involve large muscle movements such as running/jumping
fine motor skills physical abilities that ivolve small coordinated movements such as drawing and writing ones names
Piaget's preoperational stage when children lack the ability to step back from their immediate perceptions
Piaget's concrete stage when children are able to step back from their immediate perceptions and reason in a logical adult like way
Piaget's stage Sensorimotor- physical Preoperations- children's perceptions are captured by their immediate appearances Concrete operations- children have a realistic understanding of the world Formal operations- reasoning is at its pinnacle
Conservation tasks- Piaget's tasks that involve changing the shape of substances to see whether children can see beyond the way that a substance visually appears to see that its amount remains the same
Reversibility concrete operational child's is knowledgeable that a specific change in the way a given substance looks can be reversed
Centering the pre operational child's tendency to fixate on the most visually striking feature of a substance and not take into account dimensions
Decentering the concrete operational child's ability to look into the several dimensions of an object of substance
Class inclusion the understanding that a general category can encompass several subordinate elements
Identity constancy the preoperational child's ability to grasp that a person's core self stays the same despite changes in external appearance
Psychologist Les Vygotsky - theorized that the gap between a child's ability to solve a problem totally on their own and their own potential knowledge is taught by a more accomplished adult
Scaffolding the process of teaching new skills by entering a child's zone of proximal development and tailoring one's efforts to that person's competence level
Vygotsky's theory the way in which humans learn to regulate their behavior is through silently repeating information of talking to themselves
Theory of mind knowledge that other people have different perspectives from our own
Working memory keeps information in awareness we either process information or discard it
Executive processor allows us to focus on important material to prepare for Germany storage
Executive functions any frontal lobe ability that allows intellectual planning and thinking
Autobiographical memory recollection of events and experiences that make up one's life
Executive functions abilities that allow us to plan and direct our thinking to relevant info
Selective attention a learning strategy in which we manage our awareness so as to attend only to what is relevant to filter out unneeded information
Externalizing tendencies involves acting on our immediate impulses and behaving disruptively
Internalizing tendencies a personality style that involves intense fear, low self steem
Induction involving getting children who have behaved hurtfully to emphasize with the pain they cause in other people
Proactive agression -hostile or destructive acts carried out to achieve a goal
Reactive agression - hostile acts carried out in response to be frustrated / hurt
Relational agression - destructive acts designed to harm other relationships
Hostile attributional bias when children tend to misread other people's actions as threatening when they're not
Jacob Moreno gave children a class list and asked " who would you really like to come to your party ?"
Dr. Dan Owleus research professor from Norway often considered the " pioneer" in bullying research
Parenting style Diana Baumrind's
Authoritative parents - provides ample love and family rules
Authoritarian parents - provide many rules but rank low on love
Permissive parents - few rules but lots of love
Rejecting/ neglecting parents little discipline or love
Acculturation - among immigrants the tendency to become similar to the mainstream culture after time spent living in a new society
Collective efficacy - Communities defend by strong cohesion, a commitment to neighbors neighbor helping
WISC - Wechsler intelligence scale for children
Flynn effect- remarkable rise in 19 tests scores around the world that occurred over the 20th century
Robert Sternburg's types of intelligence ( Triachic theory) Analytic, creative, practical, successful,
Howard Gardener's verbal, mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal. spatial, musical, kinestetic, and naturalist
Alfred binet- assessed mental age, test of general mental ability
Ruth Griffiths- infant IQ test
Nancy Baylay - IQ test used for preschool age
David Wechler - Most widely used, modeled after Binet's
Charles Spearman - responsible for performance IQ tests
Louis Thurstone - Intelligence is cluster of abilities
Menarche - a girls first menustration
Adrenal androgens - hormones produced by the adrenal glands that program puberty
Hpg axis - The main hormonal system that programs in puberty
Gonads - The sex organs ovaries in a girl and testes in boys
Primary sexual characteristics - Physical changes that involve reproductive organs such as growth of penis and menstruation
Secondary sexual characteristics - physical changes during puberty not directly involved in reproduction
Susan Carter's research 5 domains that relate to overall self esteem 1. feelings of competence 2. behavioral conduct 3. athletic skills 4. likability 5. and appearance
Created by: Selahh
Popular Psychology sets




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