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Vocab. Ch.3

Culture The knowledge, attitudes, values, customs, and behavior patterns that characterize a social group.
Cultural diversity The different cultures that you'll encounter in classrooms and how these cultural differences influence learning.
Ethnicity A person's ancestory; the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came.
Assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
Multicultural education A general term that describes a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences in teaching and learning.
Culturally responsive teaching Instruction that acknowledges and accommodates cultural diversity.
English language learners (ELLs) Students whose first language is not English and who need help in learning to speak, read, and write in English.
Maintenance Language programs Language programs that place the greatest emphasis on using and sustaining the first language.
Immersion program Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English.
English as a second Language (ESL) program Language program that teaches English along with content.
Transition programs Language programs that maintain the first language until students acquire sufficient English.
Gender-role identity Differences in expectations and beliefs about appropriate roles and behaviors of the two sexes.
Stereotype A rigid, simplistic caricature of a particular group of people.
Single-gender classes and schools Classes and schools where boys and girls are segregated for part or all of the day.
Intelligence The capacity to acquire knowledge, the ability to think and reason in the abstract, and the ability to solve problems.
Multiple intelligences A theory that suggests that overall intelligence is composed of eight relatively independent dimensions.
Ability grouping The practice of placing students of similar aptitude and achievement histories together in an attempt to match instruction to the needs of diffferent groups.
Between-class ability grouping Grouping that divides all students in a given grade into high, medium, and low groups.
Within-class ability grouping Grouping that divides students within one classroom inot ability groups.
Tracking The practice of ability grouping that places students in a series of different classes or curricula on the basis of ability and career goals.
Learning styles Students' personal approaches to learning problem solving, and processing information.
Metacognition Students' awareness of the ways they learn most efectively and their ability to control these factors.
Students with exceptionalities Learners who need special help and resources to reach their full potential.
Disabilities Functional limitations or an inability to perfom a certain act, such as hear or walk.
Giftedness Abilities at the upper end of the continuum that require support beyond regular classroom instruction to reach full potential.
Special education Instruction designed to meet the unique needs of students with exceptionalities.
Mainstreaming The practice of moving students with exceptionalities from segregated settings into regular education classrooms.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) The placement of students in as normal an educational setting as possible while still meeting their special academic, social, and physical needs.
Inclusion A comprehensive approach to education students with exceptionalities that advocates a total, systematic, and coordinated web of services.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) An individually prescribed instructional plan devised by special education and general education teachers, resource professionals, and parents (and sometimes the student).
Learning disabilities Exceptionalities that involve difficulties in acpuiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities.
Communication disorders Exceptionalities that interfere with students' abilities to receive and understand information from others and to express their own ideas or questions.
Speech disorders (or expressive disorders) Problems in forming and sequencing sounds.
Language disorders(or receptive disorders) Problems with understanding language or using language to express ideas.
Mental retardation An exceptionality that includes limitations in intellectual functioning, as indicated by difficulties in learning, and problems with adaptive skills, such as communication, self-care, and social ability.
Behavior disorders Exceptionalities involving the display of serious and persistent age-inappropriate behaviors that result in social conflict, personal unhappiness, and school failure.
Gifted and Talented A designation given to students at the upper end of the ability continuum who need special services to reach their full potential.
Acceleration A program for gifted and talented students that keeps the regular curriculum but allows students to move through it more quickly.
Enrichment A program for gifted and talented students that provides richer and varied content through strategies that supplement usual grade-level work.
Collaboration Joint communication and decision making among educational professionals to create an optimal learning environment for students with exceptionalities.
Created by: LFalone