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AP Psych Unit 6

Social Psychology

Norms understood rules for accepted and expected behavior “proper behavior”
Roles a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Social loafing tendency for people in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a goal than when individually accountable
Deindividuation the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Social facilitation improved performance on simple or well learned tasks in the presence of others
Group polarization the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within a group more influenced by the group to do something
Groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Bystander intervention the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid of other bystanders are present
Diffusion of responsibility a person is less likely to take responsibility for something when in a large group of people or make a decision
Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Cognitive dissonance We act to reduce discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
Attribution theory Fritz Heider We can credit the behavior to the person’s stable, enduring traits (dispositional attribution) or we can attribute it to the situation (situational attribution)
Dispositional factors the assumption that a person’s behavior reflects his internal dispositions like his personality, beliefs, attitude etc.
Situational factors the assumption that a person’s behavior is influenced by an external influence from the environment or culture
Fundamental attribution error tendency to overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations
Self-serving bias Most people take credit for their successes but attribute their failures to external situations beyond their control
Self-fulfilling prophecy having expectations about an individual that influence your behavior towards them, which in turn influences the way this person behaves towards you
Stereotypes generalized beliefs about a group of people
Prejudice “prejudgement” unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Scapegoat theory when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide a target for our negative emotions often based off prejudice
Ethnocentrism thinking your culture is the best, comparing everyone’s to yours can lead to scapegoat theory
Just-world phenomenon the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get good is rewarded and evil is punished
Out-group homogeneity tendency for people to view ingroup as more diverse than outgroup members perceive them
Contact theory theory that contact between individuals of different groups can reduce prejudice amongst the groups regarding people as individuals rather than members of a specific group
Jigsaw classroom teaching method that focuses on fostering cooperation instead of competition reduces conflict
Conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard
Compliance an individual doing what someone else wants them to, following his or her request or suggestion not an order, a suggestion
Foot-in-the door tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request succumbing to a temptation with make the next one harder to resist
Door-in-the-face large request is made knowing it will probably be turned down so that the person will agree to a smaller request the smaller request was the original goal
Reciprocity giving something to someone hoping that you will get something back
Low-ball technique technique designed to gain compliance by making a very attractive initial offer to induce a person to accept the offer and then making the terms less favorable.
Mere exposure effect familiarity principle people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them
Central route to persuasion interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts evidence and arguments that trigger careful thinking factual info, logical arguments, and thoughtful analysis
Peripheral route to persuasion people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness uses attention-getting cues to trigger emotion-based snap judgements
Informational social influence influence from one’s willingness to accept others opinions about reality
Normative social influence influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Instrumental Agression occurs when trying to obtain a goal
Hostile Agression result of emotions, ex: road rage
Ingroup people whom one shares a common identity
outgroup: those perceived as different from one’s ingroup
ingroup bias tendency to favor one’s own group
Milgram: Milgram obedience experiment,electric shocking experiment
Asch Line test experiment
Festinger Cognitive dissonance
Latane & Darley diffusion of responsibility
Sherif contact theory
Aronson & Gonzalles Jigsaw classroom
Rosenthal & Jacobsen The pygmalion effect, situation where high expectations lead to improved performance and low expectations lead to worse performance
Zimbardo Prison experiment
Elliott Classroom experiment with the blue eyes brown eyes
Janis Groupthink
Triplett social facilitation, cyclists
Created by: Aubreybrown06
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