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mgmt exam 3

ch. 9-12

QuestionAnswer
Departmentalization Subdividing into separate organizational units responsible for completing particular tasks
Functional Departmentalization Most common. Organizes into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise +:work done by highly qualified specialists, lower costs, similar work experience for all. -:Cross-department coordination
Product Departmentalization Organizes into separate units responsible for producing particular products or services. +: managers have 1 are of expertise, broader set of experiences for an entire product line,faster decision making. -: Duplication & coordination
Customer Departmentalization Organizes into separate units responsible for particular kinds of customers. +: focuses the org, on customer needs instead of business function -: duplication & coordination
Geographic Departmentalization Organizes into separate units responsible for doing business in particular geographic areas. +:Helps companies respond to demand of different markets, reduces costs -: duplication & coordination
Matrix Departmentalization A hybrid organization structure in which two or more forms of departmentalization, most often production and functional are used together
Simple vs. complex matrix Simple: managers in different parts of the matrix negotiate conflicts and resources Complex: Managers report to matrix managers, who help them sort out conflicts and problems.
Chain of command The vertical line of authority that clarifies who reports to whom throughout the organization.
Unity of command A management principle that workers should report to just one boss. Key assumption of chain of command.
Line vs. Staff Authority Line: The right to command immediate supordinates in the chain of command. Example: CEO to head of group Staff: The right to advise, but not command, other who are not subordinate in the chain of command. Example: HR manager to group manager
Line vs. Staff Function Line: An activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company's products. Staff: An activity that does not contribute directly to creating or selling the company's products, instead supports line activities.
Delegation of authority The assignment of direct authority responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.
Centralization vs. Decentralization of authority Centralization: The location of most authority at the upper levels of the organization. Decentralization: The location of a significant amount of authority in the lower levels of the organization.
Standardization Solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes
Job design The number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in their jobs.
Job specialization A job composed of a small part of a larger task or process.
Job rotation Periodically moving works to give variety and opportunity to use different skills.
Job enlargement Increasing the number of different tasks that a worker performs within a particular job.
Job enrichment Increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work
Job Characteristics Model (JCM) An approach to the job redesign that seeks to formulate jobs in ways that motivate workers and lead to positive work outcomes.
Task identity The degree to which a job, from begining to end, requires the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
Autonomy The degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish the job.
Mechanistic vs. Organic organization Mechanistic: Specialized jobs/responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles, rigid chain of command based on centralized authority & vertical communication. Organic: loosely defined;changing roles; decentralized authority &horizontal communication
Intraorganizational process The collection of activities that take place within an org. to transform inputs into outputs that customers value.
Reengineering The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign ofbusiness processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. 4 Keys: fundamental, radical, processes, dramatic
Empowering workers Permanently passing decision-making authority and responsibility form managers to workers by giving them the information and resources they need to make and carry out good decisions
Advantages of teams Improve customer job satisfaction,product, and service quality, employee job satisfaction and decision making.
Disadvantages of teams Initially high turnover, social loafing, and problems associated with group decision making.
Cross training Training team members to do all of most of the jobs performed by the other team members. Gives employees a chance to improve skills.
Social loafing Behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of work. More likely to occur in larger groups.
When to use teams: when there is a clear, engaging reason or purpose for using them. When the job can't be done unless people work together. When rewards can be provided for teamwork and team performance.
Autonomy Degree to which workers have the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs
Traditional work groups A group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal.
Employee involvement teams Teams that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues.
Semi-autonomous work group A group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service.
Self managing teams A team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service
Self designing teams A team that has the characteristics of self managing teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and team membership.
Cross-functional team A team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization
Virtual team A team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task
Project teams A team created to complete specific one-time projects or tasks within a limited time.
Norms Informal agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior. One of the most powerful influence on team behavior because they regulate daily actions and help team function effectively.
Cohesiveness The extent to which members are attracted to a team and motivated to stay in it.
Size Between 6 to 9 members. Strong relationship with performance.
Conflict Primare cause is disagreement of team goals and priorities. C-type: cognitive conflict - focuses on problem related difference of opinion. A-type: affective conflict - emotional reactions that occurwhen disagreements become personal instead of pro.
Four stages of team development: forming-get to know each other. storming-teams disagree over goal and tactics norming-teams settle on roles, group cohesion grows, positive norm performing-team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team.
How to set goals: Smart goals. especially specific and challenging. Clear focus and purpose. Stretch goals - ambitious goals members don't know how to reach, force innovation.
4 things for stretch goals 1. high degree of autonomy or control over goals. 2. must be empowered with control over resources 3. structural accomodation 4. Bureaucratic immunity (only accountable to top management.
Individualism/collectivism the degree to which a person believes that people should be self-sufficient and that loyalty to oneself is more important than loyalty to the team/company.
What to select for good teamwork: individualism-collectivism. Team level, diversity, training, interpersonal skills.
Ways to compensate for team participation: Skill-based pay. Gainsharing programs (company shares on financial value)
Human resource management The process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form qualified work force.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) An exception in employment law that permits sex, age, religion, and the like to be used whem making employment decisions, but only if they are "reasonably necessary to normal operation of that particular business. Strictly monitored by the EEOC
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Enforce federal employment laws
Disparate treatment (intentional discrimination) Occurs when people are purposely not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, color, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs.
Adverse impact Unintentional discrimination that occcurs when members of a particular race, sex, or ethnice group are unintentionally harmed or disadvantaged because- hired/promoted/trained for any other employment decision at substantially lower rates than others
Four-fifths ( 80% ) rule A rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determin whether there is evidence of adverse impact. A violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80%-4/5ths of the selection rate for a nonprotected group.
Quid pro quo sexual harassment A form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes, such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job, depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment.
Selection The process of gathering information about the job applicants to decide who should be offered a job
Validation the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance. The better/more accurate the prediction, the more valid the test
Cognitive ability tests tests that measure the extent to which applicants have abilities in perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, numerical aptitude, general reasoning, and spatial aptitude
biographical data extensive surveys that ask applicants questions about their personal backgrounds and life experiences
work sample tests tests that require applicants to perform tasks taht are actually done on the job
Assessment centers A series of managerial simulations, graded by trained observers, that are used to determine applicants' capability for managerial work.
Performance appraisal The process of assessing how well employees are doing on their jobs
objective performance measures Measures of job performance that are easily and directly counted or quantified.
Behavioral observational scales (BOSs) Rating scales that indicate the frequency with which workers perform specific behaviors that are representative of the job dimensions critical to successful job performance.
Rater training Training performance appraisal raters in how to avoid rating errors and increase accuracy
360 degree feedback A performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers, and coworkers, and the employees themselves
employee separation The voluntary/involuntary loss of an employee
Piecework A compensation system in which employees are paid a set rate for each item they produce
Commission Employees are paid a percentage for what they sell
Profit sharing A compensation system in which a company pays a percentage of its profits to epmloyees in addition to their regular compensation
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) A compensation system that awards employees shares of company stock in addition to their regular compensation.
Stock options A compensation system that gives employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price, even if the value of the stock increases above that price.
Downsizing The planned elimination of jobs in a company
Wrongful discharge A legal doctring that requires employers to have job related reason to terminate employees
Outplacement services Employment counseling services offered to employees who are losing their jobs because of downsizing
Phased retirement Employees transition to retirement by working reduced hours over a period of time before completely retiring.
Employee turnover Loss of employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company
Dysfunctional turnover Loss of high-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company.
Affirmative action Purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment opportunities for minorities and women. More focused on demographics than diversity, Creates diversity, required by law, programs have different purposes.
Diversity Important because cost savings, attracts/retains talent, and drives business growth.
Surface-level diversity Differences such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure.
Deep-level diversity Differences such as personality and attitudes that are communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors and are learned only though extended interaction with others. Leads to better social integration
Social integration The degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective.
Age discrimination older workers "cost more." job performance declines with age is a belief but evidence shows it doesn't decline.
Sex discrimination Continues to operate because of glass ceilings. 13 of the 500 largest companies in the U.S. have women as CEOs
Glass ceiling the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations.
Racial/ethnic discrimination 1964 Civil Rights Act and Title VII decreased it.
Mental/physical disabilities Self-care disabilities were least represented in the work force. Common and widespread.
Disposition The tendency to respond to situations and events in a predetermined manner
Conscientiousness The most impactful of the Big Five Personality Dimensions. The degree to which someones is organized, hardworking, responsible, perservering, thorough, and achievement oriented
Big Five Personality Dimensions 1.Extraversion 2.Emotional stability 3. Agreeableness 4. Conscientiousness 5. Openness to experience
Diversity paradigms Discrimination and fairness paradigm . Access and legitimacy paradigm. Learning and effectiveness paradigm.
Organizational plurality A work environment where members are empowered to contribute in a away that maximizes the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves. the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting polarizing people on by their membership.
Diversity principles follow federal/state laws for equal employment. Treat group differences as important, not special. common ground. Tailor opportunities to individuals, not groups. Solicit negative+positive feedback. High, realistic goals.
Awareness training Training that is designed to raise employees' awareness of diversity issues and to challenge the underlying assumptions/stereotypes they may have about others.
Skill based diversity training Training that teaches employees the practical skills they need for managing a diverse work force, such as flexibility/adaptibility, negotiation, problem solving, and conflict resolution.
Created by: mollyharrell
 

 



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