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Physical and Cogniti

XI: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

Growth and Motor Development Cephalocaudal (head-to-tail) growth continues
Ossification the process in which the long bones of the legs and arm form new tissue; results in gains and height, and stronger and harder bones. Young children's bodies start to take on proportions that of adults
Gross Motor Skills As they grow and gain competence in this, young children become more coordinated and begin to show interest in balancing games and those that involve feats of coordination
Fine Motor Skills follows the proximodistal principle. As children get better at these skills, they can become more independent and do more for themselves. Many of these skills are difficult for young children because they involve both hands and both sides of the brain
Brain Development This development is defined by growth in spurts with rapid periods of growth followed by little growth or even reductions in volume with synaptic pruning
Plasticity the brain's ability to change its organization and function in response to experience; enabled by the natural forming and pruning of synapses; at its greatest when neurons are forming many synapses and it declines with pruning
Lateralization the process of the hemispheres becoming specialized to carry out different functions, predicts children's language skills. Left side tends to dominate over the right by adulthood; partially due to that language is lateralized to the left
Myelination aids quick, complex communication between neurons and makes coordinated behaviors possible; as the neuron's axons become more coated with fatty myelin, children's thinking becomes faster, more coordinated, and more complex
Nutrition and Eating Habits Children often lack Vitamin D, Potassium and their diets are often high in calories & sugar. A child's food preferences are influenced by experiences and it's common for children to go through a picky eating phase at age 3 & to dislike trying new foods
Physical Activity enhances growth and is consistently associated with advances in motor development, fitness, & bone & skeletal health. Advised for preschool children reach a target of about 3 hours of activity on any level; about half of children meet these guidelines
Sleep Duration naturally declines by about 20% from infancy into early childhood, recommended that kids aged 3-5 get 10-13 hours, issues in this area poses risks to young children's cognitive development
Screen Use Limited screen time, educational programs and co-viewing with caregivers may promote language skills
Toxins that Can Harm Development cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide, car exhaust, lead
Leading Causes of Death in Children drowning, car accidents, unintentional suffocation, fire
Falls the most common nonfatal accidents that require an ER visit
Piaget's Preoperational Reasoning (ages 2-6) characterized by a dramatic leap in the use of symbolic thinking (using imagination and moving beyond the concrete things). Children use language, interactions with others, and pretend play to guide their behavior
Egocentrism the inability to take another person's perspective. ex.) Three Mountain Task
Animism the belief that inanimate objects are alive and have feelings and intentions
Centration focus on one part of the stimulus, exclude all others; limited focus where you are able to focus on one thing and exclude the rest
Irreversibility inability to understand that reversing a process can undo it and restore it to its original state ex.) Johnson doesn't understand that removing the extra block restores the block structure to its original state
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective cultural context shapes how we think and who we become; with interaction and experience, the child adopts and internalizes the tools and knowledge becoming able to apply them to be independent
Guided Participation A form of teaching that helps children accomplish more than they could alone; they're still the ones achieving it but they're being guided through it
Scaffolding assistance that is tailored to the child's needs and permits children to bridge the gap between their current competence level and the task at hand
Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) the gap between the child's competence level and what they can accomplish independently and with the assistance of a skilled partner
Private Speech when a child engages in self-talk when completing tasks, plays a role in self regulation. Used to plan strategies, solve problems, and regulate themselves so that they can achieve goals. More likely to be used when working on challenging tasks
Attention the ability to remain focused on a stimulus for an extended period of time; improvements in this
Working Memory improvements in holding information, manipulating it, inhibiting irrelevant stimuli, and planning, which allows them to set and achieve goals
Executive Function more skilled at controlling and deploying resources to serve goals (coming up with plans and using them to achieve goals)
Episodic Memory memory for events and information acquired during events; expands rapidly; memory for everyday experiences
Recognition Memory the ability to recognize a stimulus one has encountered before; nearly perfect in 4-5 year old children, emerges as children become proficient in language and executive function and develops steadily from ages 3-6
Recall Memory the ability to generate a memory of a stimulus one has encountered before without seeing it again; children are less proficient in this
Memory Strategies trying to remember things/activities that make us more likely to remember; not very effective in use for children ex.) Rehearsal, repeating items over and over again
Autobiographical Memory memory of personally meaningful events that took place at a specific time and place in one's past
Memory Suggestibility incorporation of misinformation into memory due to leading questions, deception, and other causes; repeating questioning increases suggestibility, younger children are more vulnerable to this than older adults
Theory of Mind children's awareness of their own and other's mental processes, commonly assessed by examining children's abilities to understand that people can hold different beliefs about an object or event, emerges at about 3 and shifts reliably between 3 and 4
Metacognition knowledge of how the mind works and ability to control the mind
False-Belief-Tasks tasks requiring understanding that another person can have an incorrect belief ex.) Band-Aid box
Language Development the average child learns a new word every 1-2 hours and are more likely to acquire words that they hear often, are of interest, and are encountered in meaningful contexts
Overregularization grammatical errors because rules are being applied too strictly ex.) I putted it int he house; applying 'ed' to all past-tense words
Logical Extension when learning a word, children extend it to other objects in the same category ex.) When learning about that a dog with spots is called a dalmatian, a child may refer to a Dalmatian bunny (a white bunny with black spots
Mutual Exclusivity Assumption when children assume that objects have only one label or name ex.) If a child has learned the word 'hammer' they won't assume an unfamiliar tool has the same name
Bilingual Language Learning Bilingual children learn two sets of rules for combining words and grammar, they select an appropriate language to use with other speakers, and the total vocabulary growth in bilingual children is greater than monolingual children
Created by: serenakellie
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