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Sociology Exam Two

The two social institutions that are most directly involved in the issue of exercising power in order to allocate scarce resources are: Political and Economic Institutions
"Rule by a small number of people in which most group members take little part in making decisions" is called: Oligarchy
Which of the following is a characteristic of socialist economies Means of production are collectively held
"Relatively unrestrained power in the hands of a few who rule the masses" refers to the The Power Elite by C.W. Mills
Through studying the social backgrounds of people in elite positions, G. William Domhoff determined that: They participate in elaborate informal network
According to C.W. Mills, The elite in the U.S. is made up of the following Heads of Corporations Military Chiefs Political directories
Which of the following is NOT a reason given in the text for the decline in union membership over the past three decades Decline in number of people in jobs that are traditionally unionized
"Worker empowerment" refers to programs that attempt to: Workers gaining management authority and responsibility and more control over the operation of corporations
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are most correctly identified as Global Financial Institution that promotes the spread of capitalism
The term "socioeconomic status" refers to: a person's social location based on all three dimensions of the stratification system: Wealth, Prestige, and Power
Which of the following types of differentiation is the least likely to lead into stratification Custom
In examining the universality of stratification, which of the following society is the least likely to have a system Hunting and Gathering Societies
"Social stratification is a mechanism for allocating differential rewards and motivating people to fill key positions that are important to society." Functionalist perspective
According to Marx, the failure of people in a particular social class to recognize what is in their own best interest is called False Class Consciousness
Which of the following was NOT mentioned as an elite model theorist Marx
Which of the following was NOT a mode of production examined by Marx Industrialism & Pastoralism
Weber's and Karl Marx theoretical explanation of stratification are based respectively on Max Weber believes that IDEOLOGICAL FORCES are essential and more important. Marx believes that OBJECTIVE CONDITIONS are more important.
According to world-system theory, the nations that dominate and exploit other nations are called: Core Nations
The most widely used objective criterion used to measure socioeconomic status is: Occupation
According to Turner and Starnes, the wealthfare system is an example of an exercise of power by elite and upper class over society
Which of the following is true regarding the distribution of wealth between the poor and the wealthy in the United States today? U.S. has more inequitable distribution than any other world
The statement "Poverty exists because the greed of elites who pursue a massively unbalanced distribution of resources" would be most consistent with Conflict model
Which of the following would be the clearest example of "status inconsistency" Occupy unparallel positions in society Ex: A millionaire with no schooling
Characteristics like race and ethnicity are called Ascribed vs Achieve Statuses
A negative attitude toward certain people based solely on their membership in a particular group is called: Prejudice
The sociologist who characterized the complex relationships between prejudice and discrimination by formulating four possible combinations of the two was: Robert K. Merton
Accepting other racial or ethnic groups in both belief and practice The Unprejudiced Nondiscriminator Ex. United States
Negative feelings toward a particular group and translates these sentiments into unequal treatment of people in that group The Prejudiced Discriminator Ex. Ku Klux Klan
Kind of "closet bigot" who is prejudiced against members of some groups but does not translate these attitudes into discriminatory practices The prejudiced Nondiscriminator Ex. A landlord may be prejudiced against Asian Americans yet still rent apartments to them because of laws forbidding housing discrimination
Treats the members of some groups unequally because it is convenient or advantageous to do so rather than out of personal antipathy toward them The Unprejudiced Discriminator Ex. Salespeople in a real estate agency, may have no personal prejudices but still decline to show houses in certain neighborhoods to African Americans because of the prejudices of people who already live there.
A competitive situation in which there are two groups of workers willing to do the same work, but for different wages is most precisely referred to as Split Labor Market
Refers to situations where a subordinate group provides cheap labor that benefits the dominant group and is then further exploited by having to purchase goods and services from the dominant group Internal Colonialism
According to the text, the lynching of African Americans in the United States between 1880 and 1930 were due in part to Economic Competition
When a society allows a group to retain a culture, beliefs, values, and knowledge, that is in part separate from the culture of the dominant society, this is termed: Cultural Pluralism
According to the text, African Americans today Income improved less compared to white income Some trapped in poverty or in occupations with low prestige
Which of the following is true, according to the discussion of Asian Americans in the text? Racist attitudes in U.S. characterized the Chinese as "YELLOW PERIL" They were often referred to by the pejorative term COOLIES
In the "class versus race" debate, sociologist William J. Wilson argues that Class, rather than race, is the more important factor in determining the social positions of African Americans today
Regarding biological differences between men and women, the text concludes that Differences are far fewer and much smaller than was once thought to be the case
According to the conflict perspective on gender inequality: Sex roles become the background for struggle for jobs and prestige
According to the text, gender refers to: Learned behavior involving how we are expected to act as females and males in society
According to investigations of the content of school textbooks and children's picture books today Many are pictured more frequently
Regarding the relationship between income and gender, recent research shows that None of the occupations studied show that women earned more than men
In which of the following realms do men today suffer from discrimination based on gender Military, use of obscene language and higher insurance
The program of "comparable worth" has been developed in the United States to Reduce the economic inequalities suffered by women
Refers to a condition where male and female characteristics are not rigidly assigned and there is a blending of the traits of both sexes Androgyny
Created by: BG
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