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Theoretical Perspect

III: Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development

Oral Stage (0-18 months), basic drives focus on the mouth, tongue, and gums. Feeding and weaning influence personality development
Anal Stage (18 mos-3 yrs), basic drives are oriented towards the anus, and toilet training is an important influence on personality development
Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs), basic drives shift to the genitals, the child develops a romantic desire for the opposite-sex parent and a sense of hostility and/or fear of the same-sex parent (Oedipus and Electra Complex)
Latency Stage (6 yrs-Puberty), this is not a stage, but a time of calm between stages when the child develops talents and skills and focuses on school, sports, and friendships
Genital Stage (Puberty through adulthood), The basic drives again become oriented toward the genitals. The person becomes concerned with developing mature adult sexual interests and sexual satisfaction in adult relationships throughout life
Id reservoir for all unconscious energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives (bad, selfish, greed)
Ego seeks pleasure within the social and moral constraints of life, the executive part of the personality that attempts to balance the needs of the ID and Superego
Superego part of the personality that develops ideals, morals, and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations; moral compass, conscience
Freud's Psychosexual Theory development is a progression through a series of periods in which unconscious drives are focused on different parts of the body
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory throughout their lives, individuals progress through 8 psychosocial stages that include changes in how they understand and interact with others, as well as changes in how they understand themselves and their roles as members of society
Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy), infants learn to trust that others will fulfill their basic needs (nourishment, warmth, comfort) or to lack confidence that their needs will be met
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (Toddlerhood), Toddlers learn to be self-sufficient and independent through toilet training, feeding, walking, talking, and exploring or to lack confidence in their own abilities and doubt themselves
Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschooler) Young children become inquisitive, ambitious, and eager for responsibility or experience overwhelming guilt for their curiosity and overstepping boundaries
Industry vs. Inferiority (Elementary Schooler) Children learn to be hardworking, competent, and productive by mastering new skills in school, friendships, and home life or experience difficulty, leading to feelings of inadequacy and incompetence
Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) Adolescents search for a sense of self by experimenting with roles. They also look for answers to the question, "Who am I?" in terms of career, sexual and political roles or remain confused about who they are and their place in the world
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adults) Young adults seek companionship and a close relationship with another person or experience isolation and self-absorption through difficulty developing intimate relationships and sharing with others
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) Adults contribute to establish and guide the next generation through work, creative activities, and parenting or stagnate, remaining emotionally impoverished and concerned about themselves
Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood) Older adults look back at life to make sense of it, accept mistakes, and view life as meaningful and productive or feel despair over goals never reached and fear death
Classical Conditioning A form of learning in which a person or animal comes to associated environmental stimuli with physiological response ex.) Pavlov's Dogs
Operant Conditioning Behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences ex.) BF Skinner's Operant Chambers
Reinforcement a behavior followed by a rewarding or pleasant outcome; encourages behaviors to continue
Punishment a behavior followed by an aversive or unpleasant outcome; discourages behaviors to continue
Social Learning Theory the physical and social environment influences our behavior through its effects on our thoughts and emotions; development occurs through social interactions and thoughts and emotions about consequences of a behavior influence future behavior
Observational Learning learn through observing and imitating others Ex.) Albert Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
Reciprocal Determinism individuals and the environment interact and influence each other
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory examines how culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through social interaction; individuals acquire culturally relevant ways of thinking through social interactions with members of their culture
Cognitive Development learning to use inventions of society/ using what's available to you in your society ex.) Using language learning apps, calculators, etc.
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory development is a result of the ongoing interactions among biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes within individuals and their changing contexts; emphasizes the role of context in development
Ontogenetic Development refers to the changes that take place within the individual
Microsystem the innermost level of the bioecological system, which includes interactions with the immediate physical and social environment surrounding the person, such as the family, peers, school, and work; one context an individual is in
Mesosystem the relations among microsystems or connections among contexts ex.) How does your home influence your school setting; work-life balance; brining work home and how that affects your home setting
Exosystem settings in which the individual is not a participant but that nevertheless influences him or her ex.) A child doesn't participate in a parent's workplace, but it has an indirect influence on the child because it affects parent's mood
Macrosystem the greater sociocultural context in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded; includes cultural values, legal and political practices, and other elements of the society at large; institutional patterns of culture, cultural influences
Chronosystem the element of time; environmental events over the life course; social-cultural circumstances; large-scale social changes, such as those that accompany war, natural disasters, and epidemics, can influence each level of the bioecological system
Dynamic Systems Theory children's developmental domains, maturation, and environment form an integrated system that is constantly changing, resulting in developmental change and the emergence of new abilities
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory views children and adults as active explorers of their world, driven to learn by interacting with the world around them and organizing what they learn into cognitive schemas, or concepts, ideas, and ways of interacting with the world
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 yrs) Infants understand the world and think using only their senses and motor skills, by watching, listening, touching, and tasting
Preoperations Stage (2-6yrs) Preschoolers explore the world using their own thoughts as guides and develop the language skills to communicate their thoughts to other. Despite these advances, their thinking is characterized by several errors in logic
Concrete Operations Stage (7-11 yrs) School-aged children become able to solve everyday logical problems. Their thinking is not yet fully mature because they are able to apply their thinking only to problems that are tangible and tied to specific substances
Formal Operations Stage (12 yrs-Adulthood) Adolescents and adults can reason logically and abstractly about possibilities, imagined instances and events, and hypothetical concepts
Ethology the scientific study of the evolutionary bias of behavior; Humans display biologically preprogrammed behaviors that have survival value and promote development ex.) Caregivers naturally respond to infants' cues (crying smiling and grasping)
Adaptive Significance meets infants' needs, and promotes the formation of bonds with caregivers, ensuring that caregivers will feel a strong desire and obligation to care for them
Evolutionary Developmental Theory genetic factors and biological predispositions interact with physical & social environment to influence development; applies principles of evolution and scientific knowledge about the interactive influence of genetic and environmental mechanisms to develo
Created by: serenakellie
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