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RTE 1418 Wk 3 chp 12

Annihilation Reaction Matter being converted back into energy as a result of a positron combining with a negative electron, which creates two photons moving in opposite directions.
Attenuation Result of x ray photons interacting with matter, and therefore giving up their energy to the matter they interact with
Backscatter radiation When a scattered photon is deflected back toward the source, it is traveling in the direction opposite to the incident photon
Characteristic photon An x-ray photon created by the electron transfer from one shell to another.
Coherent scatter interaction which occurs between very low-energy x-ray photons and matter. No ionization takes place(classical scatter or unmodified scatter)
Compton effect The same as Compton scattering: interactions between x-rays and matter.
Compton electron The dislodge electron resulting from Compton scattering
Compton (Scattered) photon The photon which exits the atom in a different direction
Compton scattering occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with a loosely bound outer-shell electron, removes the electron from its shell, and then proceeds in a different direction as a scattered photon.
negatron A negatively charged electron resulting from a pair production
pair production An interaction between x-rays and matter characterized by the conversion of the energy of an x-ray photon into matter in the form of two electrons
photoelectric absorption results when an x-ray photon interacts with an inner shell electron
photodisintegration Interaction between an extremely high-energy photon.
photoelectron An ionized atom with missing inner-shell electron resulting from ejection of the electron due to photoelectric absorption.
positron A positively charged electron resulting from pair production.
radiation fog The result of scattered photons striking the film and placing a density on the film that is unrelated to the patients image
scattering When an x-ray photon interacts or changes direction
secondary radiation Produced in the same manner as characteristic radiation is produced at the x-ray target-electron transfer from one shell to another.
Five basic interactions between x-rays and matter Photoelectric absorption, Coherent scattering, Compton scattering, Pair production and photodisintergration
The higher the _______ of an element, the more energy will be required to remove a _____ electron from the atom atomic number, K-shell
The further an _____ is from the nucleus, the higher the _______ of the electron will be electron, total energy
The incident x-ray photon energy must be _____ than the binding energy of the ______ electron greater than, inner shell
Added filtration Any filtration that occurs outside the tube and housing before the image receptor
Compensating filter Used to even out unequal densities
Compound filter The use of two or more materials to complement one another in their absorbing abilities, also know as K-edge filter
Filter Any material designed to selectively absorb photons from the x-ray beam
half-value layer (HVL) amount of absorbing material that will reduce the intensity of the primary beam to one-half its original value
inherent filtration results from the composition of the tube and housing
K-edge filter the use of two or more materials to complement one another in their absorbing abilities; also known as compound filters
Thoreaus filter A type of compound filter consisting of tin, copper, and aluminum, in that order, typically used in radiation therapy
total filtration The sum of inherent and added filtration
trough filter A type of compensating filter used to even out densities such as in the mediastinum.
wedge filter A type of compensating filter used to even out densities such as in the foot or lower extremities
Activity Describes the quantity of radioactive material; expressed as the number of radioactive atoms that undergo decay per unit time.
Alpha particle Contains two portions and two neutrons, is equivalent to a helium nucleus, and is emitted from the nuclei of heavy elements as they undergo radioactive decay
Becquerel The SI unit of activity
Beta particle Identical to an electron, except it is emitted from the nuclei of radioactive materials: it is very light and negatively charged
Curie (ci) The unit of activity
effective dose The sum of the weighted equivalent doses for all irradiated tissues and organs; use to measure the radiation and organ systems specific damage in man.
genetic Describes the effects of radiation that appear in the descendants of the individual being irradiated
gray (Gy) Unit of absorbed energy or dose; 1 joule of energy absorbed in each kilogram of absorbing material
Integral dose The total amount of energy imparted to matter; the product of dose and the mass over which the energy is imparted
Particulate radiation High energy electrons, neutrons, and protons that produce ionization in matter by direct atomic collisions
photoelectric absorption An interaction between x-rays and matter characterized by the interaction between a high energy photon and the nucleus.
Quality factor Radiation weighting factor, specific to specific types of radiation; accounts for the biological effectiveness of the specific radiation
Rad Radiation absorbed dose, Unit of absorbed energy or dose applicable to any material
Rem Radiation equivalent in man, measurement of the biologically equivalent dose
roentgen (R) The unit of exposure in air
sievert (Sv) The product of the absorbed dose in gray and the radiation weighting factor
somatic Describes the effect of radiation that appear in the individual who was irradiated
Systeme Internationale d'Unites (SI units) An international system of units based on the metric system
Conventional: roentgen ______ SI unit: Coulomb/kilogram 2.58 x 10^4
Conventional: rad ______ SI unit: gray 0.01
Conventional: rem ______ SI unit: sievert 0.01
Conventional: curie ______ SI unit:becquerel 3.7 x 10^10
____ energy photons interact with _____ atom Low, whole
____ energy photons interact with _____ electrons Moderate, orbital
____ energy photons interact with _____ High, nucleus
Ionizing radiation: (Sources) Natural Cosmic, terrestrial, internal
Ionizing radiation: (sources) Man made Medical, nuclear, consumer products
Ionizing radiation: (groups) Particulate and Electromagnetic
Particulate radiations High energy electrons, Neutrons, Protons, alpha particles, beta particles
Ionizing Electromagnetic radiation X-rays, gamma rays, Energy transfer, Biologic damage
Electromagnetic radiations includes: x-rays and gamma rays
What is the predominant interaction in the diagnostic x-ray range? Compton scattering
HVL Is the most appropriate measure of x-ray beam quality
kVp The quality of an x-ray beam
kVp The HVL is affected principally by
Radiation quality When filtration is added to an x-ray tube
Low-energy x-rays are removed more readily than high-energy x-rays As filtration is added to an x-ray beam
X-ray quality An increase in mAs will increase
Quality Often stated that mAs controls quantity and kVp controls this
Quality and quantity kVp controls
The scatter exposure to the operator is increased by 25% If the mA during fluoro is increased
A lower HVL would result in an increased absorbed dose to the patient with no improvement in image quality A minimum HVL is required for diagnostic x-ray beams
Filtration is added An x-ray beam can be made to have higher effective energy if this occurs
Filtration Will enhance x-ray beam quality
Soften the x-ray beam Reducing kVp will do
Increase x-ray quality Adding filtration to an x-ray beam
Alpha Can use a few cm of air as sheild
gamma electromagnetic radiation originating from a nucleus undergoing radioactive decay
Alpha is identical to a He nucleus
Alpha particulate radiation with a positive charge
X-ray electromagnetic radiation originating from the electron shells surrounding the nucleus
Beta is identical to an electron
Sievert equal to Gy x Wr
Gray unit of absorbed dose
C/kg applies only to x and y radiation
becquerel Unit of activity
Gray equal to 1 joule/kg
C/kg exposure in air
Sievert takes into account the biological effectiveness of radiation
becquerel kinetic energy released per unit mass of matter
Milliamperage directly proportional to tube current
Exposure time is ______ proportional to the number of ______ crossing the tube and is therefore directly proportional to the number of x-rays created directly, electrons
Radiographic film _____ density is the degree of blacking of an x-ray film. density
mAs used as the primary controller of radiographic film density
Increasing the ______ on an x-ray control panel will cause an _____ in the speed and energy of the electrons applied across the x-ray tube kVp, increase
X-ray quantity measure of the number of x-ray photons in the useful beam
X-ray quality measurement of the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
Quantitative Factors mAs, kVp, Distance, filtration
Qualitative factors Kilovoltage, Filtration
Radiographic film ____ is the degree of blacking of an x-ray film density
As the distance _____, intensity _____, which causes a decrease in exposure to the image receptor increases, decreases
Created by: Joker71