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Psych Unit 1

Scientific Foundations of Psychology

Behavioral Perspective observing behavior, predicting and controlling such behavior
Biological Perspective how the body and the brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how our genes and environment influence our differences
Cognitive Perspective belief that perception develops how people see the world and the difficulties they face; how we store, encode, and process info
Evolutionary Perspective how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
Humanistic Perspective the belief that people are in control of their own destiny, focuses on the inherent worth of an individual
Psychodynamic Perspective how unconscious behavior drives behavior
Socio-Cultural Perspective how behavior and thinking vary across situations and culture
Descriptive Research Method used to observe and record behavior; conducted through case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation
Correlational Research Method used to detect naturally occurring relationships; to access how well one variable predicts another; conducted by collecting data from two or more samples
Experimental Research Method used to explore cause and effect; conducted through trial and error and manipulating variables to get a result
Structuralism concerned with visions, hearing, and touch and relied on introspection
Functionalism concerned with the structure or purpose of the conscious
Edward Titchner brought forth structuralism
William James brought forth functionalism
Wilhelm Wundt recognized psychology as an independent field that should focus on the consciousness
G. Stanley Hall took Wundt's ideas to the US and established the first American psychology research lab
Margaret Floy Washburn first women to get a phD and second female APA president
Mary Whiton Calkins studied under William James, became the first female APA president
Max Wertheimer brought forth the gestalt approach, focusing on one's whole form
Medical Model believes we are genetically predisposed to certain disorders and their is little we can to do prevent them
Cross Sectional Study a research design in which you collect data from many different individuals at a single point in time
Longitudinal Study continuous or repeated measures to follow particular individuals over prolonged periods of time—often years or decades
Negative Correlation As one variable increases, the other decreases
Positive Correlation Both variables increase together
Operationalization the process of turning abstract concepts into measurable observations
Eclectic drawing from multiple perspectives
Sampling when a researcher selects a group to study
Assignment the process by which researchers conducting an experiment decide which of their participants will be in each of the various treatment conditions
Illusory Correlation occurs when a researcher believes there is a relationship, but there's not
Created by: MadisonFoleyReis
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