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THC4 Ethics-6

Kant: Ethics of Dignity and Freedom

QuestionAnswer
Immanuel Kant ocused on duty-driven ethics, sometimes called deontology, from the Greek root “deon,” which means duty
Categorical Imperative A moral obligation that is imposed on us no matter the circumstances or our personal desires
Maxim is a procedure for reasoning if an act is morally permissible and if it is a moral obligation. An act is categorical if it is something that applies to everyone in all instances.
Absolute rules moral demands or obligations with no exceptions. Actions based on these rules are always right (or wrong) independently of any further considerations. These rules allow us to be moral agents whose conduct is guided by universal laws.
Good Will Kant believed it is the only thing that is totally and completely good without exception
Autonomy Being in control of your own life
Universalizability universalized without inconsistency and yet be of questionable morality. One critic pointed out that it is possible to universalize "Never help anyone in need."
Dignity The moment Kant formulated the value of humans, dignity became innate to our being. Value = worth = dignity. Dignity is, therefore, the unconditional respect and esteem all humans should receive just in virtue of being rational and human.
Freedom
Retributivism A theory of punishment that is best summed up by the phrase an eye for an eye.
Supports the Classical Utilitarian Theory The principle of utility determines morality.
Supports the Classical Utilitarian Theory A moral act produces the greatest happiness.
Supports the Classical Utilitarian Theory Laws should promote the greatest happiness of all.
Does not support the Classical Utilitarian Theory It is wrong to kill innocent people.
Does not support the Classical Utilitarian Theory No act may be prohibited unless it causes pain to another.
Does not support the Classical Utilitarian Theory God is in control and establishes morality.
According to Utilitarianism.... Actions are permissable if they promote the greater good.
What are the differences between retributiviam (Kant) and Utilitarian (Betham)? Kant believed an eye for an eye. Betham believed punishment is mischief and is a greater evil but is justifiable.
Major points critical of Kant's ethics Consequentialism, Utilitarianism
According to Kant, what is morality about? Following absolute rules without exception
Kant's Theory Our duty is to follow rules that we would consistently will to be universal laws, rules that we are willing to have followed by all people in all situations
Kant's two formulas of the categorical imperative Universally willing the maxim of youir actions or taking the standpoint of everyone else. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.
What type of moral theory is Kant's? Deontological
According to Kant, what are some of our basic duties? Always tell the truth, always keep your promises, Never commit suicide.
Moral principle MUST BE Universalizable (Kant) One can will that everything act acording to it
INCONSISTENT WITH KANT true autonomy results from acting acording to desires, without regard to moral permissability.requires people to act to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain
CONSISTENT WITH KANT it is wrong to treat others as tools to obtain maximum happiness,people must recognize others capacity to give or withhold consent, one should NOT strive to benefit from one's interactions with others.
Created by: lstreets
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