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THC4 Ethics-II

Religion and Moral Behavior in Society

The Divine Command Theory Things are morally good or bad or morally obligatory, permissible or prohibited, solely because of God’s will and commands.
The Theory of Natural law maintains that God, or nature, has established universal laws and principles from which the norms of all human behavior must be derived.
Hinduism suggests reincarnation will provide an escape from human misery; we are meant to live according to our dharma (role).
Classical Chinese-Confucianism Confucianism stresses propriety, honor, and loyalty in fulChrist against Culture filling one's role in society.
Classical Chinese-Daoism Daoism sees living by The Way (Dao) as a path to inner harmony, peace, and longevity.
Jainism One of the lesser known ethical traditions of India. Reverence for all life. Would not kill any living thing. Would not eat meat. Would strain water so as not to harm any small creature. Cared for everything except self.
Buddhism 1. Meditation key to enlightenment 2. Lead a good life 3. Practice virtue 4. Follow meditative exercises.
Gandhianism borrows from Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Christian beliefs about nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance, and from the teachings of Mohandas K. Gandhi, a major 20th century political and spiritual leader in India.
Monotheistic Belief in one God
6 Classical Hindu ethics 1. Dharma (duty) 2. Karma (action-affect) 3. Ashrama ( life cycle) 4. Purushartha (human ends) 5. Gita (abstinent & Performative 6. Virtues (self-restraint, giving,
Who founded Jainism? Founded by Mahavira – an unorthodox teacher thought to be a contemporary of Buddha, to whom he is often compared.
Recognize the dilemmas created by applying religious teachings-scriptural and traditional- to contempoary social issues. look to their faith's ethical teachings to help shape views on social issues. turn to religion's teachings as approach issues like abortion, capital punishment, euthanasia, economic inequality, the role of women in society, concerns.
Five Great Relationships
Reincarnation that a soul can be reborn into a new body after death)
Karma that the good and evil a person does will return either in this life or in a later one
Christianity Received through Prophets and Jesus, recorded in the Bible (Old and New Testaments)
Golden Rule "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." (Matthew 7:12)
Christianity Received through Prophets and Jesus, recorded in the Bible (Old and New Testaments)
Golden Rule "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." (Matthew 7:12)
Monotheistic is the belief that only one God exists.
The Ten Commandments are a list of religious and moral imperatives that, according to the Hebrew Bible, were spoken by God (referred to in several names) to the people of Israel from the mountain referred to as Mount Sinai
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ in Culture theory was concerned throughout his life with the absolute sovereignty of God and the issue of historical relativism.
Cultural relativism in terms of the cultural differences argument. There is no universal truth in the ethics. . It is arrogant to judge the conduct of other people
Christ against Culture A kind of other world pietism
Christ of Culture Christianity which casts a gospel glow over the existing order and hardly challenges it
Christ and culture in paradox Makes a sharp separation between God’s kindly rule in the church and His stern rule in public life.
Christian transforming culture Seeks to influence but not necessarily to control institutions
Niehbor's 5 attributes of Christian history 1. Christ against culture 2. Christ of culture 3. Christ and culture in paradox 4. Christ above culture 5. Christ transforming culture
Zen Meditation
4 relative stages of Ashrama 1.Studentship 2. Householder 3. Semi-retreat 4. Reunciation
Studentship Requiring disciplines, continence, and dedication to the teacher
Householder Entailing marriage, family and their obligations
Semi-retreat Gradual withdrawal from worldly pursuits and pleasures
Reunciation Leading to total withdrawal and contemplation
Gandian 1. Combines Satya, ashima and tapasya. 2. Mxed up and questioned Hindu practices
Gita Locates itself in the middle of two opposing traditions. Abstinent and performative
4 classes of society in Brahamnical (Hindu) society 1. Brahmana religious – instructional 2. Kshatriya-sovereign defense 3. Vaishya-agriculture-economic 4. Shudra-menial labor
Dharma Duty
Humanistic virtues and moral ideas praised in Vedic hymns (12) Truthfulness, giving, restraint, austerities, affection, gratitude, fidelity, forgiveness, non-thieving, non-cheating, giving us their just dessert, and avoiding injury to all creatures.
Replaced divine law Moral law
Class of shudra Menial labor – 4th class
Class of Kshatriya Sovereign defense – 2nd class
Class of Vaishya Agriculture – economic – 3rd class
Class of brahmana Religious instructional 1st class
The Divine theory Things are morally good or bad or morally obligatory, permissible or prohibited, solely because of God’s will and commands.
3 concrete observations about the Brahmanical (Hindu) society 1. The vedas (canonical collection of texts) is its ultimate authority. 2. Social ordering dividing into 4 classes. 3. An act is moral if it safeguards the good of all-not moral if it creates disorder
Mohandas K. Gandhi Major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. Believed in non-violence.
Created by: lstreets
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