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Dev. Psych-Chap 2

chromosome sausage shaped structure in the nucleus of cells, containing genes, which are paired, except in reproductive cells
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic information in all life forms
gene segment of DNA containing coded instructions for the growth and functioning of the organism
genome entire store of an organism's hereditary information
genotype organism's unique genetic inheritance
phenotype organism's actual characteristics, derived from its genotype
dominant-recessive inheritance pattern of inheritance in which a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene is expressed in the phenotype
allele on a pair of chromosomes, each of two forms of a gene
incomplete dominance form of dominant-recessive inheritance in which the phenotype is influenced primarily by the dominant gene but also to some extent by the recessive gene
polygenic inheritance expression of phenotypic characteristics die to the interaction of multiple genes
sex chromosomes chromosomes that determine whether an organism is male (XY) or female (XX)
x-linked inheritance patterns of inheritance in which recessive characteristics is expressed because it is carried on the male's X chromosome
nature-nurture debate debate among scholars as to whether human development is influenced mainly by genes (nature) or by environment (nurture)
behavior genetics field in the study of human development that aims to identify the extent to which genes influence behavior, primarily by comparing persons who share different amounts of their genes
monozygotic (MZ) twins twins who have exactly the same genotype; identical twins
dizygotic (DZ) twins twins that result when two ova are released by the female instead of one, and both are fertilized by sperm; fraternal twins
heritability statistical estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population, with values ranging from 0 to 100
concordance rate degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members, expressed as a percentage
epigenetics in development, the continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment
reaction range range of possible developmental paths established by genes; environment determines where development takes place within that range
theory of genotype-environment effects theory proposing that genes influence the kind of environment we experience
passive genotype-environment effects in the theory, the type that results from the fact that in a biological family, parents provide both genes and environment to their children
evocative genotype-environment effects in the theory, the type that results when a person's inherited characteristics evoke response from others in the environment
active genotype-environment effects in the theory, the type that results when people seek out environment that corresponds to their genotype characteristics
ovum mature egg that develops in ovaries, about every 28 days in human females
mitosis process of cell replication in which chromosomes duplicate themselves and the cell divides into two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell
gametes cells, distinct to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes)
meiosis process by which gametes are generated, through separation and duplication of chromosome pairs, ending in four new gametes from the original cell, each with half the number of chromosomes of the original cell
cytoplasm in an ovum, fluid that provides nutrients for the first two weeks of growth if the ovum if fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and begins drawing nutrients from the mother
crossing over at the outset of meiosis, the exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes
follicle during the female reproductive cycle, the ovum plus other cells that surround the ovum and provide nutrients
zygote following fertilization, the new cell formed from the union of sperm and ovum
germinal period first 2 weeks after conception
blastocyst ball of about 100 cells formed by about 1 week following conception
trophoblast in the blastocyst, the outer layers of cells, which will go on for form structures that provide protection and nourishment to the embryo
embryonic disk in the blastocyst, the inner layer of cells, which will go on to form the embryo
amnion fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing organism in the womb
placenta in the womb, gatekeeper between mother and fetus, protecting the fetus from bacteria and waste in the mother's blood, and producing hormones that maintain the blood in the uterine lining and cause the mother's breasts to produce milk
umbilical cord structure connecting the placenta to the mother's uterus
embryonic period weeks 3-8 of prenatal development
gestation in prenatal development, elapsed time since conception
ectoderm in the embryonic period, the outer layer of cells, which will eventually become the skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
mesoderm in the embryonic period, the middle of the three cell layers, which will become the muscles, bones reproductive system, and circulatory system
endoderm in the embryonic period, the inner layer of cells, which will become the digestive and respiratory systems
neural tube in the embryonic period, the part of the ectoderm that will become the spinal cord and brain
neuron cell of the nervous system
neurogenesis the production of neurons
fetal period in prenatal development, the periods of prenatal development
vernix at birth, babies are covered in an oily substance which protects their skin from chapping in the womb
midwife person who assists in pregnant women's prenatal care and the birth process
teratogen behavior, environment, or bodily condition that can have damaging influence on prenatal development
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) sexually transmitted infection caused by HIV, resulting in damage to the immune system
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) set of problems that occur as a consequence of high maternal alcohol use during pregnancy, including facial deformities, heart problems, misshapen limbs, and a variety of cognitive problems
secondhand smoke smoke from a cigarette inhaled by those near the smoker
down syndrome genetic disorder due to carrying an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
multifactorial involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors
genetic mutation a permanent alteration of a DNA sequence that makes up a gene
techniques of prenatal monitoring includes ultrasound, maternal blood screening, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling (CVS), which provide the ability to monitor the growth and health of the fetus and detect prenatal problems
ultrasound machine that uses sound waves to produce images of the fetus during pregnancy
maternal blood screening tests for a variety of risk factors, including spina bifida and down syndrome, by examining proteins, hormones, and genetic fragments of DNA from the fetus
amniocentesis prenatal procedure in which a needle is used to withdraw amniotic fluid containing fetal cells from the placenta, allowing possible prenatal problems to be detected
chorionic villus sampling prenatal technique for diagnosing genetic problems, involving taking a sample of cells at 5-10 weeks of gestation by inserting a tube into the uterus
infertility inability to attain pregnancy after at least year of regular sexual intercourse
assisted reproductive technologies (ART) methods for overcoming infertility that include intrauterine insemination, fertility drugs, and IVF
intrauterine insemination procedure of injecting sperm directly into the uterus
in vitro fertilization form of infertility treatment that involves using drugs to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in the ovaries, removing the follicles and combining them with sperm, then transferring the most promising zygotes to the uterus
Created by: AC*
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