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Psychology Chapter 1

The scientific study of the mind and behavior Psychology
Private inner experiences. The thoughts and feelings we experience at every moment but that no one else can see Mind
Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals. The "here and now" outcomes. Behavior
Developmental psychologists who studied the impact that discrimination and prejudice had on self-identity. Their work was important in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case and the work to desegregate schools. Kenneth Clark
Studied risk-taking behavior. Made a study w/ risks embedded in a game w/ teen and adult participants and then looked @ overall performance. Hypothesized that teens would take more risks since the frontal lobe isn’t fully developed until 25 but risk-taki Larry Sternberg
1st African American man to earn a PhD. Began the psychology department at Howard University Francis Sumner
1st African American woman to earn a PhD Inez Prosser
Served as president of the Association of Black Psychologists 1982-1983. Research on mental health and racial-cultural oppression Kobe Kambon (aka Joseph Baldwin)
Race relations and identity expert Beverly Tatum
WEIRD groups Western, educated, industrial, rich, and democratic societies
the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn rather than acquired. Supported by Plato and Kant Nativism
Our biological endowment, especially the genes we receive from our parents. Innate, nativist, intuitive, genes, biology Nuture
The view that perceptions of the physical world are produced entirely by information from sensory organs. Supported by Locke Realism
The view that perceptions of the physical world are the brain’s interpretation of information from the sensory organs. Supported by Kant Idealism
the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience. Supported by Aristotle and Locke Philosophical Empiricism
refers to the wide range of environments, both physical and social, that influence our development. Learned, empiricism, environment, experience, culture. Nurture
French philosopher that argued for dualism between mind and body Rene Descartes
the body is made of a material substance, the mind is made of an immaterial substance, and every person is therefore a physical container of a nonphysical thing. (Descartes) Ghost in the machine
The view that mind and body are fundamentally different things Dualism
Argued against Descartes. Promoted materialism Thomas Hobbs
the view that all mental phenomena are reducible to physical phenomena (Hobbs) Materialism
studied brain-damaged patients (left frontal lobe) to link localization to ability Paul Broca
Study how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments (William James) Functionalism
Heavily influenced by Darwin & had the idea that the human mind must have evolved. 1st to take a scientific approach to study psychology. Emphasis on how the mind functions. Wider variety of participants. Adaptability and intelligence. Compared individual Willia, James
analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components (Wilhelm Wundt) Structuralism
“Father of Psychology” opened the first psychological lab. Thought he could determine the structure of the mind based on people’s subjective experiences Wilhelm Wundt
a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind Consciousness
the analysis of subjective experience by trained observers Introspection
studied human reaction time; established the length of nerve impulse Hermann von Helmholtz
Sensory input from the environment Stimulus
the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus Reaction time
the study of biological processes, especially in the human body Physiology
A loss of function that has no obvious physical origin Hysteria
The part of the mind that contains information of which people are not aware Unconscious
unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors Psychoanalytic theory
a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders Psychoanalysis
Believed repressed memories lead to hysteria. Created psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud
an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior Behaviorism
Studied stimuli and their response Ivan Pavolov
Popularized behaviorism John Watson
Conducted research on the nature and function of reinforcement BF Skinner
Any behavior that is rewarded will be repeated and any behavior that isn't won't The Principle of Reinforcement
Adding something in order to increase a response Positive reinforcement
Taking something negative away in order to increase a response Negative reinforcement
Inconsistent response to a behavior, harder to extinguish Intermittent reinforcement
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and experience Cognitive psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts. (Max Wertheimer) Gestalt Psychology
Argued memory isn’t a simple recording device; rather, our minds use their theories of how the world works to construct our memories of past exerpeiences Sir Frederic Bartlett
the study of the ways in which psychological phenomena change over the life span. (Jean Piaget) Developmental psychology
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality (kurt lewin) Social psychology
lesioned rats’ brains to unsuccessfully localize learning; which lead to physiological psychology Karl lashley
an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Behavioral neuroscience
the study of the relationship between the brain and the mind (especially in humans) Cognitive neuroscience
a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection. Influenced by Darwin, James, and E.O. Wilson Evolutionary psychology
the study of human information processing Cognitive psychology
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings. Pioneered by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Humanistic psychology
a subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior Social psychology
studied “mental chemistry” and obedience in lab experiments Soloman Asch
Studied stereotyping, prejudice, and racism as perceptual errors Gordon Allport
The study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members. Studied by psychologists and anthropologists. Cultural psychology
culture makes little difference on psychology Absolutionism
psychological phenomena are likely to vary considerably across cultures Relativism
Psychologists banded together and formed the ______ in 1892. It began with 7 men. American Psychological Association (APA)
The first female APA president Mary Calkins
the first African American APA president Kenneth Clark
Created by: Tristanuram
Popular Psychology sets




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