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AP Psych Final

introspection looking inward
behavioral approach focuses on what can be seen and measured only (learned); idea of rewards, punishments, and modeling; Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Bandura
psychodynamic/psychoanalytic approach looking back at your past; unconscious motives and conflicts; Freud
cognitive approach study of mental processes; thinking; how we process, store and interpret information
humanistic approach idea that we are our best self when others help us reach our full potential; Rogers, Maslow
biological approach things we can touch/physical; study of brain, neurons, DNA, etc.; observable
evolutionary approach study of how traits/behaviors evolve; Darwin
social-cultural approach studies the way we act based on the people around us; how people influence one another
biopsychosocial using multiple approaches in a situation
Gestalt approach the whole is greater than the individual parts; similar to holistic view
John Locke wrote that we are born with a "blank slate" (tabula rasa); knowledge comes from learning from experience
William Wundt created 1st psych lab
Edward Titchener structuralism
William James functionalism
Mary Calkins first woman to enter a Ph.D. psych program with the help of James
Margaret Washburn first woman to earn a Ph.D.
B.F. Skinner father of behaviorism; operant conditioning; rat experiment
behavioralism measure of only external, observable behavior; pavlov, watson, skinner; "can't see it, don't study it"
in the 1920s, psych went from one school of thought to another introspection to behaviorism
Sigmund Freud studied psychodynamic psych
case study study of individual(s) in hopes to describe their situation
survey questionnaire administered to a selected group of people
naturalistic observation study of animal or human behavior in natural setting without interference
longitudinal study
ex-post facto
experiment only thing that proves cause and effect
operational definition precise and carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study; necessary for accurate repetition
confounding variable unknown variable the researcher fails to control that is causing the outcome; third or missing variable problem
independent variable the variable that I change; more sunshine means more happiness > sunshine
dependent variable the variable that changes; more sunshine means more happiness > happiness
control group group that receives placebo (no change) but they think they are receiving treatment
experimental group group that receives treatment
central nervous system responsible for coordinating incoming sensory messages and outgoing motor messages
peripheral nervous system connects body to the CNS by gathering information from the senses to CNS and transmitting messages from the CNS to body
somatic nervous system controls body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system controls glands and muscles of internal organs; operates automatically
parasympathetic nervous system calms the body, conserving energy (rest or digest)
sympathetic nervous system arouses body, mobilizing energy (fight-or-flight)
action potential brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
resting state period before neuron fires where nothing is happening; gates of axon are closed
polarized positive ions are on outside and negative ions on inside, causing the neuron to be -charged or ____
selectively permeable axon membrane's choice to allow or prevent ion exchange
refractory state neuron is resting and paused until axon returns to its resting state
reuptake neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
dendrite bushy, branching extensions on a neuron that RECEIVE messages from other neurons
soma part of neuron that contains the nucleus; cell's life-support center
axon part of neuron that passes electric messages from the soma to the terminals
terminal ends of axon containing terminal buttons that store neurotransmitters
acetylcholine tells muscles to fire; +muscle spasms, -muscle paralysis and Alzheimer's
dopamine controls mood/emotion; +schizophrenia and drug addiction, -Parkinson's disease
serontonin happy drug, hunger, sleep +hallucinations -depression and mood/eating/sleep disorders
norepinephrine coffee drug, alertness, arousal, fight-or-flight; +anxiety -depression
GABA sleep/wake cycles +sleep disorders -anxiety, epilepsy, insomnia, Huntington's disease
glutamate building long-term memory; +anxiety, migraines, seizures
EEG records the waves of electrical activity across the brain's surface w electrodes; used to get a picture of overall brain activity; functional imaging
CT/CAT x-rays that show size and location of brain's abnormalities; structural imaging
PET use of radioactive glucose to determine location of brain activity; functional imaging
MRI uses magnetic field and radio waves; distinguishes btw diff. brain tissue types; structural imaging
fMRI measures movement of blood molecules; shows structural and functional imaging
makes up brainstem+ medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamus, cerebellum
medulla controls heart rate and breathing
pons controls sleep; peacemaker
reticular formation filters incoming sensory stimuli (selective attention)
thalamus relay station for incoming and outgoing sensory information to and from correct part of brain
makes up limbic system hypothalamus, pituitary gland, hippocampus
hypothalamus directs pituitary gland; maintains balance > drives, rewards, and emotions
pituitary gland master gland; secretes many diff. hormones that regulate other glands
amygdala center for emotion, fear and aggression
hippocampus where long-term memory is stored
makes up cerebral cortex frontal lobe, motor cortex, sensory cortex, parietal lob, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
frontal lobe lobe controlling decision making and analysis
motor cotex controls voluntary movement; neurons travel out cortex
sensory cortex registers sensation; neurons travel into cortex
parietal lobe lobe controlling spatial reasoning and body sensation
occipital lobe lobe controlling vision
temporal lobe lobe controlling hearing
absolute threshold minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus
weber's law To be able to tell the difference between degrees of stimulation, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage; change in difference threshold
olfaction another word for smell
feature detectors nerve cells located in the visual cortex of the occipital lobe that respond to a scene’s edges, lines, angles and movements
parallel processing when brain works to encode multiple things at once
iris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening by expanding and contracting over the pupil
lens transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
pupil small adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light passes
cornea the eye’s clear, protective outer layer covering the pupil and iris. ; where light enters the eye first
blind spot point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; no receptor cells (rods or cones) are located there
retina light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
fovea central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster; area of greatest sharpness of focus
optic nerve to brain's visual cortex leaves through the back of the eye and carries the neural impulses from the eye to the brain
main parts of the ear outer, middle, inner
figure-ground organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
selctive attention tendency to focus on just a particular stimulus among the many that are being received
monocular cues depth cues available to each eye separately
binocular cues depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
sleep spindles bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity that occur in NREM-2
delta waves large slow waves that occur in deepest sleep
sleep apnea when you stop breathing momentarily during sleep
insomnia difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
narcolepsy suddenly falling asleep w/o warning during waking hours
REM rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
REM rebound when you have a chance to fall asleep after sleep deprivation you have a tendency to get more REM sleep than you would normally get
lucid dreaming
manifest content remembered storyline of a dream
latent content the underlying meaning of a dream
stimulants increase activity in part of NS; caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy
depressants slow down a part of the NS; alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
hallucinogens changes the way nerve cells in your brain communicate; LSD, peyote, ketamine, marijuana
tolerance when more substance is required to obtain the original effect
withdrawl physical discomfort and effects when the substance is stopped post addiction
Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning; dog salivating
respondent behavior
UCS stimulus that naturally causes an organism to responds in a specific way
UCR response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
NS stimulus that does NOT naturally cause a response in the organism
CS An originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
CR After conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented
taste aversion tendency to avoid or make negative associations with a food that you ate just before getting sick; John Garcia
learned helplessness a mental state that arises in an organism that believes punishment is inescapable; Martin Seligman
classical conditioning type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus
operant conditioning type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments
E.L. Thorndike law of effect
positive/negative reinforcers
positive/negative punishers
fixed ratio
fixed interval
variable ratio
variable interval
order of memory processing sensory memory > short term memory > long term memory
forgetting curve Ebbinghaus
John Garcia
Martin Seligman
John Watson ran the experiment with baby Albert and the bunny; classical conditioning
flashbulb memory
episodic memory
semantic memory
serial position effect the idea that in learning a list of items or meeting a line of people, you are most likely to remember the first (primary) and the last (recency)
method of loci
peg words
elaborative rehearsal
self-referent processing
proactive interference old learning interrupts new learning
retroactive interference new learning interrupts what's already been learned
retrograde amnesia
anterograde amnesia
misinformation effect
Elizabeth Loftus
phonemes the most basic "unit" of language; refers to sounds
productive language
Noam Chomsky
prototypes schemas
inductive reasoning
deductive reasoning
mental set
functional fixedness
availability heuristic idea that we assume something more likely to occur or be true if it is commonly seen as possible; stereotypes or rare extreme events that are shown often on the news
representativeness heuristic recurrence of our prototype
anchoring effect
confirmation bias searching for facts that only support your predisposed opinion
hindsight bias tendency to believe, after learning something, that you would have done it
overconfidence bias the idea that we tend to think we know more than we do
Charles Spearman G factor
Raymond Cattell fluid vs crystallized intelligence
fluid intelligence
crystallized intelligence
Robert Sternberg triarchic theory
triarchic theory
Haward Gardener multiple intelligences
Alfred Binet mental age
Lewis Terman Stanford-Binet
David Weschsler WAIS, WISC
WAIS vs WISC test for adults vs children
validity a test's ability to provide results that represent the test's purpose
Albert Bandura ran the Bobo doll experiment; showed that behavior is mirrored
Charles Darwin studied evolution and its relationship with nature and nurture
Rodgers studied client centered therapy; humanistic perspective
Maslow hierarchy of needs - concerned about moving up; humanistic perspective
structuralism school of thought that stressed the basic units of thought; break down of the atoms and what they experience
functionalism theory concerned with how organism uses it abilities in its environment; knowledge of whole system
descriptive research
correlation shows ____ not ___ relationship; causation
Phineas Gage experienced damage to his frontal lobe > could no longer filter emotional reactions
measures of central tendency mean, median, and mode
what follows a normal distribution human attributes
debriefing explanation of an experimental process post-op
positive correlation two variables increase or decrease in parallel
negative correlation one variable increases as the other decreases
genome set of complete instructions for making an organism
heritability the proportion of variation in a population trait that can be attributed to inherited genetic factors
the endocrine system the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream; email
hormones chemical messengers released into the bloodstream
thyroid gland secretes hormones that control metabolism
adrenal glands control fight or flight response
neuron a nerve cell; basic building block of the NS
myelin sheath fatty tissue layer encasing the axons of some neurons; increases transmission speed and provides insulation
multiple sclerosis deterioration of myelin sheath
glial cells support, nourish, and protect neurons
sensory neurons carry info from sensory systems to CNS
motor neurons carry info from CNS to muscles and glands
interneurons carry info btw other neurons; located only CNS
synapse junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and dendrite of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitter chemical messengers that travel across synapse and bind to receptor sites of receiving neuron; stays in synaptic gap
order for how neurons fire resting potential, threshold, action potential, refractory period of repolarization
threshold level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
agonist drug molecule that acts to create an excitatory signal
antagonist drug molecule that inhibits a neurotransmitter's action or blocks reuptake
nervous system body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems; neurons release neurotransmitters that move across synapse; nano-fast; text-message
nerves bundled axons of many neurons that form neural cables connecting CNS w muscles, glands, and sense organs
CNS make up brain and spinal cord
PNS make up sensory and motor neurons
functions of sympathetic NS dilates pupils, accelerates heartbeat, raises blood pressure/sugar, slows digestion
functions of parasympathetic NS contracts pupils, decelerates heartbeat, lowers blood pressure, stimulates digestion, processes waste
brain comprised of the cortex and subcortical structures carrying out various functions; nerves arranged into neural networks
spinal cord oversees the sensory and motor pathways of reflexes btw PNS and brain
sense not controlled by thalamus smell
cerebellum "little brain"; processing sensory input, coordinating movement and balance
cerebral cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center
association areas areas of brain involved in high order thinking; learning, speaking, thinking, remembering
left hemisphere processes reading, writing, language, and speaking; dominant brain
right hemisphere recognizes faces and more active in creative activities
Broca's area expressive language center; speaking and writing
Wernicke's area receptive language center; hearing and reading
split brain idea that left brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa
corpus callosum fibers that connect the two hemispheres and allow communication btw the two
circadian rhythm our bodies’ 24-hour cycle that governs patterns of body processing
NREM non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
beta waves low amplitude, fast waves experienced when awake
alpha waves relatively slow waves experienced when in awake but relaxed state; also known as twilight
NREM-1 may experience hypnagogic sensations or hallucinations; theta waves
NREM-2 sleep spindles occur due to memory consolidation
NREM-3 brain emits large, slow delta waves; deepest sleep
inattentional blindness failing to see visible objects when our attention or focus is directed elsewhere
change blindness failing to notice changes in the visual environment
perceptual set bias or readiness to perceive certain aspects of available sensory data and to ignore others
sound to neural messages vibrating air triggers nerve impulses that the brain decodes as sounds
5 tastes sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
Created by: charityedney23
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