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PTA 211 Exam 1

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's

pharmacologic ____ is one drug blocking the ability of another to bind and be utilized in the body antagonism
pharmacologic ___ is two drugs with similar actions combining to cause a greater response than the sum of each individually synergism
common symptoms of over-medication include: (9) postural hypotension fatigue/weakness dementia movement disorders depression anticholinergic reactions (sweating, blurred vision, dry mouth, rash, flushing) confusion incontinence dizziness
what percent of all people will develop Parkinson's before the age of 50? 4%
what percent of people over the age of 60 develop Parkinson's? 2-4%
what causes Parkinson's? degeneration of dopamine secreting hormones and increase in ACh
gait changes seen with Parkinson's include: (11) forward COG small BOS excessive hip flexion during stance phase dec. ROM throughout cycle little/no pelvic rotation, tilt stiff turning shuffling gait festinating gait no toe or heel off little/no arm swing inc. lateral weight shift w/ wide BOS
difficulties with speech seen with Parkinson's include: (3) rigidity with muscles around the mouth difficulty swallowing quiet voice
___ tremors are seen in the early stage of Parkinson's, and develop to ___ tremors in later stages intention tremors initially constant tremors later
an early sign of Parkinson's is a lack of ___ or ___ while shaking hands general looseness or opposition of the thumb
tightness in the ___, ___ and ___ occurs with Parkinson's hip flexors plantarflexors neck rotators
decreased strength in the ___, ___ and ___ occurs with Parkinson's hip extensors dorsi/plantarflexors trunk extensors
postural changes seen with Parkinson's include: (4) forward head rounded shoulders kyphosis increased hip/knee flexion
cardiopulmonary impairments seen with Parkinson's include: (3) decreased chest expansion increase HR and BP increased fatigue and orthostatic hypotension (tend to hold breath/valsalva with movement)
neurologic impairments seen with Parkinson's include: (7) rigidity, resting tremor, flushing, drooling difficulty with changing walking surfaces balance impairment bradykinesia retropulsion gait disturbances swallowing difficulties
stage ___ Parkinson's is characterized by minimal impairment; no function impairment; unilateral involvement only 1
stage ___ Parkinson's is characterized by bilateral involvement; no balance impairments; development of some rigidity and intention tremors 2
stage ___ Parkinson's is characterized by moderate disabilities; some loss of righting reactions and unsteadiness with turns 3
stage ___ Parkinson's is characterized by moderate to severe disability; can walk unassisted but is not stable 4
stage ___ Parkinson's is characterized by severe disability; confined to a bed or wheelchair; hospice often involved at this point 5
___ is an impairment in brain functioning resulting in problems with memory and judgement dementia
memory and intellectual losses seen with dementia include: (6) confusion and disorientation changes in abstract thinking no longer aware of social niceties problems with higher order functioning exaggerated personality problems with personal hygeine
[reality/validation] is used when a person is coming out of surgery and is confused and needs to be reoriented, or for HI patients, etc. reality
[reality/validation] is used for Alzheimer's and other dementia patients, as attempting to reorient them can lead to frustration and sadness validation
___ is the most common form of dementia Alzheimer's
___dementia is caused by multiple, little TIAs; often have a sudden deterioration and may be area specific vascular
physical disorders that may result in dementia include: (3) diabetes brain tumors AIDS (very common)
dementia caused by ___ or ___ can reverse or improve, if caught early substance abuse or physical disorders
causes of dementia-like secondary symptoms include: (3) reaction to medication physical illness delirium and depression
___ is a progressive, irreversible brain disease of the CNS, characterized by a slow, gradual decline in function, memory, and judgement Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's is age ___, but not age ___ age related, not age dependent
average life expectancy following the onset of Alzheimer's is ___ 8-10 years
treatment for Alzheimer's includes: (4) medication caregiver training behavior modification family support/education
the ___ phase of Alzheimer's occurs in the first 2-4 years of onset; characterized by difficulty concentrating, moodiness, poor judgement, problems with social adaptations early
the ___ phase of Alzheimer's is characterized by worsening judgement, needing help making decisions/ performing tasks, less sociable, difficulty sleeping, wandering, language difficulties, path-finding difficulties; may not recognize friends middle
the ___ phase of Alzheimer's is characterized by incontinence, getting lost easily, needing assistance with simple tasks, flat affect, diminished ambulatory ability, inability to swallow; may be unable to use language late
strategies for treating Alzheimer's patients include: (6) allow enough time for communication demonstrate visually use eye contact and touch – very fearful, approach from the front eliminate visual/auditory distractions speak directly to their face caregiver support
Created by: saram6450
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