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211 exam 1

211: Geriatric Considerations

___ and ___ of aging vary among individuals rate, effect
aging may not match ____ age chronological
rate of change from aging depends on 4 things genetic makeup., lifestyle, health status, cardiovascular fitness
how does aging affect size of brain No change in size of brain except with pathology (Alzheimer's), increased size of ventricles
how does aging affect weight of brain decrease weight
loss of ____ through lifespan nuerons
how does aging affect neurotransmitters decrease (decrease synthesis and release of ACh)
neurotransmitter examples dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACh
ACh function a main factor in memory and muscles contraction
decreased speed of conduction of neurotransmitter results in what? slower movements
decrease in dopamine results in tremors 'Parkinson like syndrome'
how does aging affect NM system? decrease in responsiveness, coordination speed of transmission, increase reaction time, decrease cognitive processing speed, attention span, decrease acuity of sensory systems, increase postural instability and gait changes, decrease nerve cells in brain
VO2 max the standard for defining exercise ability/efficiency (aerobic capacity)
how does aging affect vo2 max? decrease, decreases with deconditioning
does resting oxygen consumption change with age? does not change with age - unless a Hx of pneumonia or asthma
how does age affect resting HR decreases - unless a Hx of cardiac or medicinal use
how much does resting HR decrease per decade decreases 5-7BPM/decade
why does BP increase with age due to atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
atherosclerosis thickening (fat accumulation)
arteriosclerosis decreased resilience of vessel walls (hardening)
HR max formula for elderly 208 - [0.7 x age] (208 instead of 220)
age related vs. age dependent age related: time/age related but are not necessarily caused by aging processes age dependent: related to normal aging, almost everyone will experience
most prevalent disease in those over 60 CAD/ischemic heart disease - Common but not 'normal' change with age
what is most common cause of CAD •90% due to atherosclerosis
what does CAD result in decrease blood flow --> angina -->MI --> tissue death
how does age affect maximum heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and VO2max decrease
how does age affect thickness and stiffness of L ventricular wall & valves increase
how does age affect peripheral vascular resistance increase
how does age affect total and LDL cholesterol, ↓ HDL cholesterol increase
aging causes delayed response of ____ baroreceptors
decrease response of ____ cells with age pacemaker
how does age affect residual volume increases, causes decrease in amount of oxygen exchange
how does age affect vital capacity? decrease = decrease o2 sats and increased risk of pneumonia
vital capacity max you can breathe out
how does aging affect lung tissue and chest wall decrease elasticity
how does aging affect cough reflex and cilia decreased activity
how much does residual volume increase with aging? 30-50%
how is alveolar surface area and vascularity affected by aging? decrease
how much does the work of respiratory muscles increase with aging? 20%
tidal volume the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied.
max ventilatory capacity the volume of air that can be moved with maximum inhalation followed by maximum exhalation.
collagen basic protein which increases tensile strength
how does aging affect collagen increase diameter, increase cross linkages (tighter and less flexibility), increase strength of collagen fibers
elastin allow for return to original length following stretch
how does aging affect elastin decrease recoil, increase ability to overstretch and tear
ground substance (glycoproteins) lubrication, helps maintain fluid content in tissue: Turgor test
how does aging affect ground substance decrease (can also decrease from dehydration), if hydration decreases then more wrinkling
overall affect of aging on connective tissue •increase cross - linkages of collagen lead to in tensile strength decreased elasticity in skin, arteries and bronchial tree •decrease fluid in tissues •Net result = rigidity, tendency for adhesions
soft tissue work for the elderly gentle stretches, massage works well in the elderly
how does aging affect the epidermis increase turnover time with age, decrease moisture = brittle skin, epidermis separates from dermis easier so skin tear occur easily
____ are very easy to tear liverspots
how to prevent bruising in elderly Bruises easily with a circumferential grip, use a lumbrical grip, wear long sleeve, use stockinet, elbow/ ankle pads
how does age affect the dermis decrease blood flow, increase inflammatory reactions, bruises slowly, takes a long time to heal
things to be careful with in elderly Gait belts, transfers, structural damage at shoulders, taping, wrapping, splinting, orthotics
how does aging affect temperature regulation? •Cold intolerance - due to decreased shivering and vasoconstriction •Heat intolerance - decreased ability to perspire and lower body temp
elderly need increased ___ time with exercise cooling, Do not exercise them in a warm/hot room - need a cool room/ not cold either
factors that can affect temperature regulation Medications, atherosclerosis, anemia, hyperthyroidism, diabetes
what type of mm fibers decrease with age? type 2 (more in the LE than UE
how is the motor unit affected by aging? reduction in the number of mm fibers per motor unit, decreased speed of contraction
how does aging affect muscle decrease Muscle mass, endurance, strength, speed of contraction, tissue compliance
BED REST acronym •Bladder/bowel incontinence and retention, Bed sore •Emotional trauma, Electrolyte imbalance •Deconditioning, Depression, Demineralize bone •ROM - contractures, Renal dysfunction • Energy depletion •Sleep disorders, Sensory deprivation •Trouble
Created by: bdavis53102
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