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Psychology 6

6 Perceiving the World

• Perception How we assemble sensations into meaningful patterns
• Bottom-up processing Analyzing information starting at the bottom (small units) and going upward to form a complete perception
• Top-down processing Pre-existing knowledge that is used to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole
• Selective attention is used to focus on one activity in the midst of many activities, eg. listening to a friend at a loud party
• Divided attention is used to complete two or more tasks simultaneously, eg. Talking on the phone while surfing the web
• Inattentional blindness Failure to perceive a stimulus that is in plain view, but not the focus of attention
• Figure–ground Part of a stimulus stands out as an object (figure) against a plainer background (ground)
• Similarity Stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color or form tend to be grouped together
• Size constancy Perceived size of an object remains constant, despite the size of the image on the retina changing
• Shape constancy The perceived shape of an object is unaffected by changes in its retinal image
• Brightness constancy Apparent brightness of an object stays the same under changing lighting conditions
Depth Perception • Definition: Ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances
Perceptual Learning • Process by how experience can change the way we perceive sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touch.
• Other-race effect Tendency to be better at recognizing faces from one’s own racial group than faces from other racial or ethnic groups
• Context Information surrounding a stimulus; affects perception
• Frames of reference Internal standards for judging stimuli
• Illusion Length, position, motion, curvature, or direction is constantly misjudged
• Hallucination When people perceive objects or events that have no basis in external reality
• Stroboscopic movement Illusory motion perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) • Purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by known capacities of sensory organs
• Parapsychology Study of ESP and other psi phenomena (events that seem to defy accepted scientific laws)
• Proximity Stimuli that are near each other tend to be grouped together
• Closure Tendency to complete a figure so that it has a consistent overall form
• Continuity Perceptions tend toward simplicity and continuity
• Common region Stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group
• Visual cliff Apparatus that looks like the edge of an elevated platform or cliff on one side and a tabletop on the other
• Retinal disparity Discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes
• Stereotopic vision 3-dimensional sight; perception of space and depth caused by the fact that the eye receives different images
Created by: Chloeombre
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