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Pre-columbian Civilz

Part 3 of W.GEO Midterm Study Guide

What civilizations were well established by 16th century european contact? mesoamerican / south american civilizations
Where did native americans build spectacular cities, complex systems of political organization, and rich cultures? in central Mexico, on the Yucatan Peninsula, and along the west coast of South America
Where was the Mayan civilization located? yucatan peninsula, belize, guatemala
Guatemala - used to be mayan - converted to catholic church by europeans? TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
What was Mayan social stratification based on? Rituals
Describe Mayan social stratification? king → middle class → commoners
What is a divine king? mortal and supernatural connection
Maya had hierarchically organized city-states led by royals and SUPPORTED by early forms of organized agriculture
The Mayans were also extraordinary astronomers who developed two interlocking calendar cycles and kept detailed records of the planet Venus.
What type of religion did the Mayans have? polytheistic
5 Factors for Mayan Polytheistic religion? large pyramids, human sacrifices, calendar based on astronomy, ONLY pre-columbian empire with hieroglyphic script, art using various stones / minerals
Mayans are AGRICULTURAL based. TRUE OR FALSE TRUE "Linked by vast trade networks"
Who arrived on the central Mexican plateau around 1200 CE? The Aztecs civilization
Aztecs had a strict or simple/free social hierarchy? STRICT
Describe Aztec social hierarchy. Lords → nobles → military leaders → high-level priests → commoners → slaves
Aztecs were originally... NOMADS
Where did Aztecs settle? They established a city on Lake Texcoco that was later known as Tenochtitlàn
How did the Aztecs increase their power? Through formation of the Triple Alliance with neighboring city-states Texcoco and Tlacopan in 1428
Who controlled the conquest of neighboring regions and maintained the flow of tributes to the Emperor at the capital in the Aztecs? A military nobility
Who managed the day-to-day affairs of the state? Priests and other government officials
Who were extremely good at math? The Aztecs
Astronomy was integral to Aztec culture, and it influenced a large portion of how they lived. TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
Who rose to prominence only about 100 years before Spanish conquest? The inca
Who controlled the majority of the peoples living on or near the Andes mountain chain? The Inca
The Inca “Land of the Four Quarters” included... 80 provinces and 16 million people
The Incas terraced along the Andes mountains. TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
What math tool did the Inca use? The yupana
Why was astronomy was a very important force in Inca life? The stars were a guiding force for the Inca people, from making agricultural decisions to predicting the weather.
Created by: Sammygaga
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