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APP Finals - Sem. 1

Unit 1-6 Modules 1-44

TermDefinition
General Adaption Syndrome (GAS) (1) Alarm, (2) Resistance, (3) Exhaustion Fight or Flight response system when body is met with stress
Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares body for "fight or flight" system; increases heart rate
Parasympathetic Nervous System Regulates body back to original state; homeostasis
Mind/Body Problem The ideas of whether mind and body are separate (dualism) or together (monism)
Standard Deviation (Def. and Magic Numbers) A measure of the variability of a set of scores or values within a group. How far a variable is from the mean. 68% - 95% - 99.7%
Control Condition To have individuals who are exposed to a condition that is not a treatment or part of the experiment
Independent Variable A variable that does not affect the end results; can coexist without effecting the other variables
Dependent Variable A variable that affects the end results of an experiment or survey
Statistical collecting and analyzing data to discover patterns and trends
Significance/Significant Difference whether or not the difference between groups is because of chance or difference is likely the result of experimental conducted
Correlation Coefficient a statistic that is used to estimate the linear relationship between two variables
Theory a principle or idea that explains or solves a problem
Hypothesis precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be the outcome of the study
Operational Definitions the exact operations and methods used in research
Random Sample A sample of the population you want to survey chosen at random
Double-Blind Study Where both the experimenter and the individuals in the experiment don't know who gets what treatment
Placebo Effect when an improvement of symptoms is observed, despite using a treatment that doesn't actually work/is fake.
Hippocampus storing long-term memories and in making those memories resistant to forgetting while also conducting spatial process and navigation
Hypothalamus Keeps body stable while regulating daily needs like releasing hormones, maintaining daily physiological cycles, and eating
Broca's Area Frontal Lobe; Produce language spoken
Wernicke's Area Left Temporal Lobe; Understand spoken language
Transduction the process by which one form of energy is converted into another
Rods Can see shapes, black and white
Cones Can see color, detail
Kinesthesis Helps with balancing; Tells our brain where the objects or things around us are in our environment
Fovea in the central portion of the retina in which retinal cone cells are most concentrated and an image is focused most clearly
Vestibular Sense In the ears, telling you your body's position in 3D Space
Proximity Objects close together are groups together
Continuity the ability to continue on the same way continuously
Similarity Objects similar to each other are grouped together or related
Phi Phenomenon an optical illusion that causes one to see several still images in a series as moving Ex: moving lights on a sign
Relative Clarity Objects that look foggy or faded are most likely far away
Interposition When one object is on top of another, making it look like the object is in front of the other
Closure filling in missing parts and making the incomplete thing whole
Stroboscopic Effect 2D animation; the apparent motion of a series of separate stimuli occurring in close consecutive order, as in motion pictures
Positive Reinforcement Being rewarded with something you WANT
Negative Reinforcement Being rewarded by GETTING RID of something you DIDN'T WANT
Spontaneous Recovery A conditioned ability that comes back even after a long time of not being rehearsed
Extinction the gradual weakening of a conditioned response resulting in a behavior stopping, or going extinct, over time
Cognitive Influence on Learning Factors influence learning range like in how much a person is able to memorize or how they memorize information
Generalization Where you respond to everything that is similar to the certain object or subject you were conditioned to respond to
Discrimination Where you only respond to the certain object or subject that conditioned you to respond
Primary Reinforcers a stimulus that is biologically important to an organism, such as food, water, sleep, shelter, safety, pleasure, and sex
Conditioned/Secondary Reinforcements stimuli, objects, or events that become reinforcing based on their association with a primary reinforcer Ex: verbal praise after the primary reward
Shaping the use of reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior
Little Albert Experiment Conditioning a baby to be afraid of objects similar to the little white rat by pairing petting the rat to a loud noise
Observational Learning Learning through observation
Encoding Learning the information
Storage Maintaining the information overtime
Retrieval Accessing information when needed
Ebbinghaus' Retention Curve Forgetting Curve; shows the rate at which memories are lost over time
Serial Position Effect Tendency to remember the first and last items in a list better than those in the middle
Mnemonic Devices memory technique that can help increase your ability to recall and retain information
Long-Term Potentiation Process of forming new synapses between neurons where there wasn't one before
Priming The activation, often unconsciously, of particular association in memory
Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Retrograde Amnesia Memory loss for events that took place in life BEFORE the onset of amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia Memory loss for events that occur AFTER the initial onset of amnesia
Problem Focused Coping People coping by trying to fix the problem they are facing
Emotion Focused Coping People coping by regulating emotions in response to the problem, but not trying to resolve the problem
Encoding Failure When a brain fails to create a memory link
Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating items over and over to maintain them in short-term memory
Elaborative Rehearsal Forming (encoding) a new memory by relating (linking) it to information one already knows
Semantic Encoding Remembering by making meaning
Iconic Encoding Remembering what you see
Echoic Encoding Remembering what you hear
Mood Congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Episodic Memory Recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened
Procedural Memory Memory system in charge of the encoding, storage, and retrieval of the procedures like visuospatial, or cognitive skills.
Proactive Inference Hard to recall new information when used to the old information
Retroactive Inference Learning new things can make it more difficult to recall things that we already know
PORN Proactive Old | Retroactive New
Cone Work in Pairs Black/White Red/Green Blue/Yellow
James Functionalism
Freud Psychoanalysis
Wundt 1st Lab/ Structuralism
"Cats Purrs Imitate Lion's Roars" or "Cows Push Idiots into Little Rooms" Cornea - Pupil - Iris - Lens - Retina
PAEOOCATT or "People Always Enjoy Ordering Our Carne Asada Tasty Tacos" Pinna - Ear Cannal - Eardrum/Tympanic - Ossicles (Malleus, Incus, Stapes) - Oval Window - Cochlea - Cicila (Hair) - Auditory Nerve - Thalamas - Temporal Lobe
Eye Process Steps 1. Rods/Cones 2. Bipolar 3. Ganglion - turns into optic nerve
Outer Ear Pinna, Auditory/Ear Canal
Middle Ear Eardrum/Tympanic, Ossicles
Inner Ear Oval Window, Cochlea, Cicila (Hair), Auditory Nerve
Bottom-Up Sensory Information
Top-Down Interpretation
Created by: RosRae
Popular Psychology sets

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