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Chapter 1 Vid Review

AP Psychology

What is psychology? the science of behavior and mental processes
When was the psychology we call today established? mid 1800's
Who said, "In the heart, and not the head" Aristotle
What are the 3 ways the human mind should be tackled? structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis
Who started the 1st psychology laboratory in Germany in 1879? Wilhelm Wundt
Wundt and his student Titchener started what school if thought that focused on introspection? Structuralist School of Thought
What did William James study? the function of behavior (science of mental life)
What school of thought did William James create that focused on Darwin's idea of adaptation? Functionalism
What is free associate? speak freely about whatever comes to mind
Who wrote the Interpretation of Dreams? Sigmund Freud
What was mentioned in the Interpretation of Dreams? Theory of Psychoanalysis
What is the theory of psychoanalysis? our personalities are shaped by unconscious motives
What school of thought did Freud create, using his technique of free association? psychoanalysis
Who wrote the Behavior of Organisms? B.F Skinner
What school of thought did Ivan Pavlov, BF Skinner, and John B Watson create during the 1st half of the 20th century? Observable Behavior/Behaviorism
Psychology is an ______ science. integrative
What can be described as "hindsight bias"? "I knew-it-all-along phenomenon"
What is operationalizing? come up with general questions and turn it into a understandable study
What is a con of case studies? can sometimes be misleading (can't be replicated, overgeneralizing)
What is a pro of case studies? memorable device for psychologists to observe behavior
What is naturalistic observation? watch behavior in a natural environment without trying to manipulate the situation
What is a pro of naturalistic observation? great at observing behavior
What is a con of naturalistic observation? limited in explaining it
Who wrote the book Sexual Behavior in the Human Male/Female? Alfred Kinsey
What is sampling Bias/Random Sample? equally selected to answer the question
What is a pro of sampling bias/random sample? great way to get people's beliefs
What is a con of sampling bias/random sample? different wording or shaping of the question can switch or turn the belief
Correlation is not ________ causation
What is pro of correlation? predict the possibility of cause-and-effect relationships
What is a con of correlation? can not prove the cause and effect relationships
What are experiments? allow investigators to isolate different effect by manipulating an independent variable, and keeping other variables constant
What are the 2 different groups in an experiment? experimental and control
What is the experimental group? going to get "messed with"
What is the control group? not going to get "messed with"
Why do experimenters have to randomly assign samples? to minimize outside factors that may mess up the results
What is placebo? inert substance
What is double-blind procedure? don't know which case is experimental/control so they don't influence their results through their own behavior
The independent variable is to ______, as the dependent variable is to __________. manipulation, measurement
What is the best tool you have for understanding other people? science
Who studied sleep, dreams, the senses, and memory? Aristole
Who 2 early Greek philosophers commonly discussed the human experience? Aristotle and Plato
Who said "I think, therefore I am!" Rene Descartes
What is the philosophical idea that the mind and body are in some categorical way separate from each other, and that mental phenomena are, in some aspects, non-physical in nature? Interactive Dualism
What is the early school os psychological thought that emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, of conscious experience? Structuralism
The examination of one's own mental and emotional processes? Introspection
Who is the father of Functionalism? William James
Emphasized studying the purpose, or function of behavior and mental processes? Functionalism
Who was the 1st PhD recipient in the United States? G. Stanley Hall
Who was the 1st female APA President? Mary Whiton Culkin
Who was the 1st female PhD recipient? Margaret Floy Washburn
What book did William James write? The Principles of Psychology
What is the Principles of Psychology about? science of mental health
When was the Principles of Psychology written? 1890
Who is the father of Psychoanalysis? Sigmund Freud
What is the psychoanalytical technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images that arise, revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions? Free Association
Who wrote The Interpretation of Dreams? Sigmund Freud
What book 1st used the term psychoanalysis? The Interpretation of Dreams
What is psychoanalysis? Behaviors are affected by unconscious motives
What motives are we not aware of but we can come to understand them? Dream Interpretation, Free Association, and Self Insight
What did Sigmund Freud think mental illness could be cured by? TALKING CARE
What is behaviorism? emphasis on observable behaviors
Who are the 3 notable figures of the school of behaviorism? John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and BF Skinner
Ivan Pavlov is the work of what? Digestive Glands
What perspective emphasizes studying the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, immune system, and genetics? Biological Perspective
What perspective studies how behavior is acquired or modified by environmental consequences. Behavioral psychologist believe that people and animals are mere victims of their environment? Behavior Perspective
What perspective focuses on the important role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language, solve problems, and think? Cognitive Perspective
What perspective focuses on the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influences on a person's self-concept, and the importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential? Humanistic Perspective
What perspective emphasizes the importance of unconscious influence, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior. behavior is shaped through childhood experiences and unconscious urges? Psychodynamic Perspective
What perspective focuses on how cultural factors influence patterns of behavior. Psychologist study the diversity of human behavior in different culture settings? Sociocultural Perspective
What perspective applies the principles of evolution, specifically natural selection, to explain psychological processes. Psychological processes are the result of evolutionary traits (survival of the fittest)? Evolutionary Perspective
What perspective integrates biological processes, psychological factors, and social forces to provide a more complete picture of behavior and mental processes? Biopsycosocial Perspective
Biology? physical health, genetic vulnerabilities, drug effects
Social? peers, family circumstances, family relationships
Psychological? coping skills, social skills, family relationships, self-esteem, mental health
Cognitive? our thought process (point to brain with index finger)
Developmental? behavioral perspective of psychology (middle finger - bad behavior)
Mental & Physical Health? healthy lifestyle choice/social (ring finger - positive choice to marry)
Biological? naturally born with (pinky finger - all naturally born with a small finger)
Social & Personality? how we interact (palm of hand - greet someone with a high five)
What type of research uses scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events? Descriptive Research
What are the advantages of Descriptive Research? show strength of a relationship between 2 variables - not cause and effect/answers who, what, when, and where questions
What research is a method of investigation used to demonstrate cause and effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor? Experimental Research
Case studies are an example of what type of research? Descriptive Research
What are case studies? intensive study of a single individual or small groups, of individuals
What is an advantage of case studies? allow a lot of detail to be collected scientific experiments can be conducted
What is a disadvantage of case studeis? data is specific to specific case experimental bias
Naturalistic Observation is an example of what type of research? Descriptive Research
What is the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting. Basic goal is to detect behavior patterns as they already exist? Naturalistic Observation
What is an advantage of Naturalistic Observation? researchers study human behavior that cannot ethically be manipulated in an experiment
What is a disadvantage of Naturalistic Observation? researcher has little-to-no control of variables
Survey is an example of what type of research? Descriptive Research
What is a questionaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group. Most common research method? Survey
What is an advantage of a survey? info gathered from large group of people good statical significance
What is a disadvantage of a survey? people don't always answer honestly tendency to respond in socially desirable ways
Population? group being studied
Sample? smaller portion that represents the population
Random Selection? participants in a given population have an equal chance of being chosen
Correlational Study is an example of what type of research? Descriptive Research
What allows the precise calculation of how strongly related 2 factors are to each other? Correlational Study
What is an advantage of Correlational Study? collect way more data than experiments, opens up other research topics/ideas, shows strength of relationship
What is a disadvantage of a correlational study? only uncovers relationships, not cause and effect
What ranges from 0-1. closer to 1 the stronger the relationship? Correlational Coefficent
Created by: kiwi_murphy04
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