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Geo ch.13 (3)

Urban Patterns - Vehicles and Key Concepts Review

underclass a group prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic challenges
gentrification the process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area
public housing government-owned housing rented to low-income people, with rents set at 30% of the tenant's income
global positioning system (GPS) and electronic mapping play a central role in the design of intelligent transportation systems, either through increasing road capacity or through reducing demand
congestion charges a way to reduce congested roads - in London, a fee is charged to drive in the central area
tolls a way to reduce congested roads - in Toronto and California, higher tolls are charged to drive during congested times
permits a way to reduce congested roads - in Singapore, people must have a license to drive during the busiest times of day
bans a way to reduce congested roads - cars are banned from parts of many European cities (Copenhagen, Munich, Vienna, and Zurich)
Uber the leading provider for the form of sharing with others a vehicle that you own
SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) pinpoints the vehicle's precise location using multiple sensors provided by LIDAR (light detection and ranging) and GPS (global positioning system)
DATMO identifies pedestrians, animals, and other vehicles that are in the route being taken by the vehicle
autonomous driving level 1 assisted driving - driver must be ready to take control at any time
autonomous driving level 2 partially automated - automatic braking, acceleration, and steering deactivates when the driver takes over
autonomous driving level 3 highly automated - fully automated only on high-speed freeways, driver must be ready to take control
autonomous driving level 4 fully automated - no driver attention required, does have steering wheel and floor pedals for emergencies
autonomous driving level 5 driverless - no human intervention required other than setting the location and starting the car, no steering wheel or pedals
plug-in hybrid battery supplies the power at all speeds, can be recharged by a gas engine or by electricity
full electric with lithium ion battery no gas engine, challenges - not many rural electric charging stations
hydrogen fuel cell hydrogen forced through a PEM - can be combined with oxygen from the air to produce an electric charge - used to power an electric motor - used in E & W Coast cities where there are hydrogen fueling stations
PEM polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane, used in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles
3 key elements to reduce pollution sharp decrease in the 3 fossil fuels, increase in renewable energy use, use of carbon capture and storage
carbon capture and storage (CCS) a process that involves capturing waste CO2, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally underground
place a specific point on Earth, distinguished by a particular characteristic
Shanghai's Pudong district one of the world's most distinct urban areas
region an area of Earth's surface defined by one or more distinctive characteristics
Lhasa an urban region in China, the capital of China's Tibet Autonomous Region
China's Tibet Autonomous Region used to be the home of the Dalai Llama until he went into exile, this urban region is one of the highest in the world at 3600 m
Potala Palace the former residence of the Dalai Llama
Nyainqêntanglha Mountains where the Tibet Autonomous Region is in China, one of the highest urban regions in the world at 3600 m
scale the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
space the physical gap or interval between two objects
connection relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Created by: imr36093
Popular Geography sets




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