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Geo ch.12

Services and Settlements - Consumer and Business Services

service any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
consumer services provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them
4 types of consumer services retail, education, healthcare, and leisure
businesses services facilitate the activities of other businesses
4 types of businesses services professional, financial, information, and transportation
public services provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
settlement a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services
central place theory helps to explain how the most profitable location for a new shop can be identified
Walter Christaller German geographer who 1st proposed central place theory in the 1930s based on his studies of southern Germany
central place a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area
market area or hinterland the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted
nodal region has a core where the characteristic is most intense - market area is an example of this
range the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
threshold the minimum number of people needed to support the service
rank-size rule the country’s nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
priamte-city rule the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city the country's largest city
4 levels of market area hamlet, village, town, and city
market analysis helps with deciding where to open/expand a location and where to close locations in an economic downturn
steps to market analysis define the market area, estimate the range, estimate the threshold, predict the market share
analog method geographer applies market share of comparable stores to the proposed new store
gravity model measures the level of interaction between a person and a service - predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it
consumer behavior reflects 2 patterns greater number of people in a place = greater number of potential customers, the farther away people are from a service = less likely they are to use it
food desert an area that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food
periodic market a collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location on specified days
farmers market a form of periodic market found in many developed countries
global city a major center for the provision of services in the global economy
business services that concentrate in global cities financial institutions; headquarters of large corporations; lawyers, accountants, and other professional services
New York City home to the UN
Brussels, Belgium the most important center for EU activities
3 levels of global cities alpha, beta, and gamma
factors used to identify global cities economic, political, cultural, infrastructure, communications, and transportation
2 types of business services in developing countries offshore financial services and back-office functions
2 functions of offshore centers taxes - tax-free status, privacy - bank secrecy laws help people evade disclosure in their home countries
offshore centers - dependencies of the UK Anguilla, Montserrat (Caribbean); Isle of Man, Jersey (English Channel); Gibraltar (Spain)
offshore centers - dependencies of other countries Cook Island (controlled by New Zealand); Aruba, Curacao (controlled by Netherlands); Hong Kong, Macau (controlled by China)
offshore centers - independent island countries Bahamas, Grenada (Caribbean); Nauru, Vanuatu (Pacific); Seychelles (Indian Ocean)
offshore centers - independent non-island countries Liechtenstein, Switzerland (Europe); Belize, Uruguay (Latin America); Bahrain, Brunei (Asia)
back-office functions/business-processing outsourcing (BPO) type of business service found in peripheral regions; functions include insurance claims processing, payroll management, transcription work, and other routine clerical activities
why developing countries have back offices low wages and ability to speak English
basic businesses export primarily to customers outside the settlement
nonbasic businesses serve primarily customers living in the same settlement
economic base the unique cluster of basic businesses in a settlement
Created by: imr36093
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