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Unit 1 Scientific Foundations of Psychology (Introducing Psychology)

psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
empiricism the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related yo school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Wilhelm Wundt Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany (person)
Edward Titchener Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements (person)
William James A legendary teacher-writer who authored an important 1890 psychology text; mentored Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins A pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association (person)
Introspection Looking inward
Margaret Floy Washburn The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D.; synthesized animal behavior research in "The Animal Mind" in 1908
John B. Watson Started behaviorism; they showed that fear could be learned, in experiments on a baby who became famous as "Little Albert"
Cognitive Psychology scientifically explores the ways we perceive, process, and remember information; thinking and interpretation
Cognitive Neuroscience The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Behaviorism The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without references to mental processes;
B. F. Skinner Leading behaviorist that rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
Sigmund Freud The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity's self-understanding
Cognitive Revolution Led the field back to its early interest in mental processes, such as the importance of how our mind processes and retains information
Behavior Anything an organism does - any action we can observe and record
Mental Processes The internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior - sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings
Charles Darwin Argued that natural selections shapes behaviors as well as bodies (person)
Evolutionary Psychology The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Behavior Genetics The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Culture The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic WEIRD cultures
Positive Psychology The scientific study of human functioning, with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
Biopsychosocial Approach An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
Social-Cultural Influence Presence of others; cultural, societal, and family expectations; peer and other group influences; and compelling models (such as in the media)
Neuroscience Focus How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary Focus How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
Behavior Genetics Focus How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic Focus How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral Focus How we learn observable responses
Social-Cultural Focus How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Developmental Psychologists Studying our changing abilities over life, from womb to tomb
Personality Psychologists Investigating our persistent traits
Social Psychologists Exploring how we view and affect one another
Testing Effect Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than rereading, information; also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists Use psychology's concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems
Created by: jmason23
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