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Chapters 1-8

Psychology Exam Study Guide

absolute threshold the weakest amount of a particular stimulus that can be sensed
anchoring heuristic the process of making decisions based on certain ideas or standards held by the decision maker
autonomic nervous system the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration and digestion
axon a long tube-like structure attached to a neuron that transmits impulses away from the neuron cell body
behaviorism the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviour
central nervous system the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
cerebellum the area of the brain that is responsible for voluntary movement and balance
cerebral cortex the bumpy, convoluted surface of the brain; the body's control and information-processing center
cerebrum the large mass of the forebrain, consisting of two hemispheres
cognitive activities private, unmeasureable mental processes such as dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
convergent thinking directed thinking; thinking that is limited to available facts
deductive reasoning a form of thinking in which conclusions are inferred from premises; the conclusions are true if the premises are true
dendrites the branchlike extensions of a neuron that receive impulses and conduct them toward the cell body
dependent variable is an experiment, the factor that is being measured ans that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
difference threshold the minimum amount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli
divergent thinking a thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to a problem; non directed thinking
double-blind study an experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo
episodic memory memory of specific experienced events
explicit memory memory of specific information
functionalism the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behaviour and mental processes and what they accomplish for the individual
Gestalt psychology the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions of individual parts into meaningful wholes
hypothalamus the neural structure located below the thalamus that controls temperature, hunger, thirst, and various aspects of emotion
implicit memory memory of which you are not consciously aware; generally includes skills and procedures one has learned
independent variable the factor that is manipulated by the researcher to determine its effect on another variable
inductive reasoning a form of thinking that involves using individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion
limbic system a group of neural structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotion and motivation
medulla a structure at the base of the brain stem that controls vital functions such as heartbeat and breathing
myelin a white, fatty substance that insulates axons and enables rapid transmission of neural impulses
nonconscious descriptive of bodily processes, such as the growing of hair, of which we are not aware
operant behavior
peripheral nervous system the neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including the muscles and glands
placebo effect an inert substance used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance where patients believe the substance has an effect
preconscious descriptive of information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness
psychoanalysis the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts as determinants of human behaviour
psychological constructs theoretical entities, or concepts, that enable one to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched, or measured directly
psychology the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes
representativeness heuristic the process of making decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appear to represent
semantic memory memory of general knowledge and information
single-blind study a study in which the participants are unaware of whether they are in the control group or the experimental group
somatic nervous system the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, muscles, and the skin
structuralism the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings
synapse the junction between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
thalamus the structure of the brain that relays messages from the sense organs to the cerebral cortex
unconscious according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but which influences our behaviour
How do psychiatrists differ from a psychologist? a psychiatrist is a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medications for clients while psychologists treat psychological problems
What two neurochemicals make you feel happier? dopamine serotonin
When is a hearing aid no longer effective? When sensorineural deafness occurs and there is damage to the auditory nerve
What stage of the sleep cycle does dreaming occur in? REM stage
In which stage of the sleep cycle is it easy to wake someone up? stage one
About how long does it take for the brain to enter the REM stage? about 90 minutes after falling asleep
What part of the brain processes emotional responses and emotions attached to memories? hippocampus
Created by: dwatson.2023
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