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AP Psych Unit 6

learning the process of acquiring new information or behaviors that last
habituation decreased response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to it
associative learning learning that two events occur together
stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning the acquisition of mental information
classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link multiple stimuli and anticipate events
behaviorism John B. Watson's view that psychology should objectively study behavior
neutral stimulus a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
unconditioned response an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimuli
unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response
conditioned response a learned response to previously neutral stimuli
conditioned stimulus a stimulus that triggers a response after conditioning
acquisition the process in which a neutral stimulus links to an unconditioned stimulus and begins to trigger the conditioned response
higher order conditioning a type of conditioning in which an already conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second, often weaker, conditioned stimulus
extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response when the response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery the random reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization the tendency for similar stimuli to elicit a similar response
discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli
taste aversion subjects are conditioned to avoid tastes associated with bad events
operant conditioning a type of learning where behavior is strengthened or weakened by results
respondent behavior the type of behavior that is evoked in classical conditioning
operant behavior the type of behavior that is evoked in operant conditioning
law of effect B.F. Skinner's idea that behaviors followed by good consequences become more likely
operant chamber a box designed by B.F. Skinner with a key an animal can manipulate to get a reward such as food or water
reinforcement any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
shaping reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired behavior
positive reinforcement a stimulus that increases or strengthens behavior after being presented
negative reinforcement a stimulus that increases or strengthens behavior after being removed
primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus
conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains power through association with a primary reinforcer
reinforcement schedule defines how long and how often a desired response will be reinforced
continuous reinforcement the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs
partial reinforcement the desired response is only reinforced some of the time
fixed-ratio schedule the desired response is only reinforced after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule the desired response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule a response is only reinforced after a specified length of time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule a response is reinforced at unpredictable time intervals
punishment an event that decreases the behavior it follows
positive punishment a stimulus that decreases behavior after being presented
negative punishment a stimulus that decreases behavior after being removed
cognitive map a mental representation of the layout of a place
latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until you have an incentive to demonstrate it
observational learning learning by observing others
modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when observing others' behavior
vicarious learning learning to anticipate a behavior's consequence by observing others
prosocial behavior positive, helpful behavior
antisocial behavior negative, harmful behavior
Created by: TessaMeyers
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